Drug War Chronicle

comprehensive coverage of the War on Drugs since 1997

Medical Marijuana Update

Florida battle brews over limiting THC in smokable marijuana, Michigan's unlicensed dispensaries get at least a temporary reprieve, Oregon growers get a heads up from regulators, and more.

Arizona

Arizona Prosecutor Still Prosecuting Medical Marijuana Patients, ACLU Charges. The Maricopa County Attorney's Office under ardent marijuana foe Bill Montgomery is continuing to prosecute medical marijuana patients for extracts even as the legality of that move is being litigated before the state Supreme Court. The state law is unclear on whether extracts and hashish are covered, but such products are widely available in the state, and the ACLU wrote to Montgomery that he needs to quit prosecuting patients "for possessing cannabis products sold at state-licensed dispensaries."

Florida

Florida House Committee Votes to Limit Strength of Smokable Marijuana. The House Health and Human Services Committee voted last Wednesday to cap the amount of THC allowed in smokable marijuana flowers at 10% despite the objections of patient advocates who noted that much stronger buds are already available on the market. The move comes less than a month after the legislature removed a ban on the use of smokable marijuana.

Florida Judge Rules Patients Have No Right to Grow Their Own. The 1st District Court of Appeals ruled last Wednesday that a Tampa patient does not have the legal right to grow his own medicine. The decision overturns a lower court ruling that held the patient could grow plants to be juiced as part of his treatment for cancer.

Florida House Committee Approves Limits on THC Levels in Smokable Marijuana After Contentious Hearing. Despite the angry complaints of veterans, patients, and activists, the House Appropriations Committee voted 19-7 Tuesday to approve HB 7117, which would cap the amount of THC in smokable marijuana at 10%, far under the levels normally found in commercially available marijuana. The bill now heads for a House floor vote, but prospects for passage aren't good because the Senate has yet to see a companion bill and the session ends in less than two months.

Michigan

Michigan's Unlicensed Dispensaries Can Stay Open for Now. Unlicensed dispensaries that were set to be shut down by March 31 can continue to operate as attorneys for the businesses meet with state regulators seeking to reach an agreement that will allow the 50 shops to stay open. Regulators had planned to send out cease and desist letters at the beginning of this month, but a Court of Claims judge has blocked that action -- at least until another court hearing set for next Thursday.

Missouri

Missouri Regulators Release Additional Draft Rules. The state Department of Health and Senior Services has released more draft rules for the state's medical marijuana program. The new draft rules for facility evaluation criteria and medical marijuana testing facilities can be viewed here. Draft rules must be finalized by June 4.

New Mexico

New Mexico Governor Signs Omnibus Medical Marijuana Bill. Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) has signed SB 406 into law. The bill makes broad changes in the state's medical marijuana program, including allowing medical marijuana in schools and allowing licensed manufacturers to process home-grown marijuana. And it allows for reciprocity with other medical marijuana states and protects workers who are medical marijuana patients.

Oregon

Oregon Medical Marijuana Growers Warned to Report Inventory. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program has warned medical marijuana growers that they need to come into compliance with inventory reporting requirements or face stiff penalties. The program issued a bulletin reminding growers they need to use the Oregon Medical Marijuana Online System (OMMOS), and that they must report their onsite marijuana inventory and any sales.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Chronicle AM: Trump AG Open to States Setting Pot Policy, Federal Reentry Bill Filed, More... (4/10/19)

Trump's attorney general is down with letting states decide their own pot policies, New York City bans most pre-employment drug testing for marijuana, a federal bill to increase educational opportunities for prisoners gets filed, and more.

Hashish. At least one Arizona prosecutor claims this doesn't qualify as medical marijuana. (DEA.gov)
Marijuana Policy

Attorney General Barr Says States Rights Marijuana Bill Better Than Status Quo. In remarks before the Senate Appropriations Committee Wednesday, Attorney General William Barr said he would rather Congress pass a bill allowing states to legalize marijuana than continue with the status quo, where federal law conflicts with legalization in a number of states. Asked about the STATES Act, which would protect legal marijuana states from federal interference, Barr said he preferred marijuana prohibition, but acknowledged that was a losing proposition. "The situation that I think is intolerable and which I'm opposed to is the current situation we're in, and I would prefer one of two approaches rather than where we are," Barr said. "Personally, I would still favor one uniform federal rule against marijuana but, if there is not sufficient consensus to obtain that, then I think the way to go is to permit a more federal approach so states can make their own decisions within the framework of the federal law and so we're not just ignoring the enforcement of federal law."

New York City Council Bans Employers from Drug Testing for Marijuana. The city council on Tuesday passed a bill that would ban most public and private employers from requiring job candidates to undergo a pre-employment test for the presence of THC. There are exceptions for workers in construction, caregiving professions, and law enforcement. "We need to be creating more access points for employment, not fewer," Public Advocate Jumaane Williams said in a release. "It makes absolutely no sense that we're keeping people from finding jobs or advancing their careers because of marijuana use."

Medical Marijuana

Arizona Prosecutor Still Prosecuting Medical Marijuana Patients, ACLU Charges. The Maricopa County Attorney's Office under ardent marijuana foe Bill Montgomery is continuing to prosecute medical marijuana patients for extracts even as the legality of that move is being litigated before the state Supreme Court. The state law is unclear on whether extracts and hashish are covered, but such products are widely available in the state, and the ACLU wrote to Montgomery that he needs to quit prosecuting patients "for possessing cannabis products sold at state-licensed dispensaries."

Florida House Committee Approves Limits on THC Levels in Smokable Marijuana After Contentious Hearing. Despite the angry complaints of veterans, patients, and activists, the House Appropriations Committee voted 19-7 Tuesday to approve HB 7117, which would cap the amount of THC in smokable marijuana at 10%, far under the levels normally found in commercially available marijuana. The bill now heads for a House floor vote, but prospects for passage aren't good because the Senate has yet to see a companion bill and the session ends in less than two months.

Michigan's Unlicensed Dispensaries Can Stay Open for Now. Unlicensed dispensaries that were set to be shut down by March 31 can continue to operate as attorneys for the businesses meet with state regulators seek to reach an agreement that will allow the 50 shops to stay open. Regulators had planned to send out cease and desist letters at the beginning of this month, but a Court of Claims judge has blocked that action -- at least until another court hearing set for next Thursday.

Sentencing Reform

Bipartisan Federal Bill Would Boost Prisoner Reentry. Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT) and two Democratic colleagues, Brian Schatz of Hawaii and Dick Durbin of Illinois, unveiled a bill Tuesday aimed at boosting reentry prospects for newly released federal prisoners. The Restoring Education and Learning (REAL) Act would provide more educational opportunities for federal inmates, including access to college Pell Grants. "The REAL Act removes some federal impediments to allowing prisoners to participate in federal higher education funding, including the Pell Grants. This would allow for more federal inmates to have the opportunity to participate in these programs," Lee said. The REAL Act is endorsed by a number of stakeholder organizations including the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the American Correctional Association and the Drug Policy Alliance.

Drug Policy Alliance is a financial supporter of Drug War Chronicle.

Chronicle AM: CO Drug Defelonization Bill Advances, CT Legalization Bills Advance, More... (4/9/19)

A drug defelonization bill advances in Colorado, marijuana legalization bills advance in Connecticut, Oregon medical marijuana growers are put on notice, and more.

The Colorado legislature is taking up both marijuana expansion and drug possession defelonization in this session. (CC)
Marijuana Policy

Colorado Social Consumption, Marijuana Delivery Bills Advance. The House Finance Committee narrowly approved a pair of bills aimed at expanding access to legal marijuana Monday. HB 1230 would require the Marijuana Enforcement Division to create a licensing system for social marijuana consumption, while HB 1234 would allow delivery of medical marijuana only for the first year, expanding to the legal adult market in year two. The social consumption bill now goes to the House Appropriations Committee, while the delivery bill head for a House floor vote.

Connecticut Legalization Bill Package Advances. The Judiciary Committee approved a trio of bills Monday that would legalize marijuana and expunge old pot convictions. SB 1085 is the main legalization bill, while SB 1089 would ensure that employers could mandate marijuana could not be smoked at a workplace and HB 7372 would establish an equivalent of a DUI test for driving under the influence of marijuana.

Medical Marijuana

Missouri Regulators Release Additional Draft Rules. The state Department of Health and Senior Services has released more draft rules for the state's medical marijuana program. The new draft rules for facility evaluation criteria and medical marijuana testing facilities can be viewed here. Draft rules must be finalized by June 4.

Oregon Medical Marijuana Growers Warned to Report Inventory. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program has warned medical marijuana growers that they need to come into compliance with inventory reporting requirements or face stiff penalties. The program issued a bulletin reminding growers they need to use the Oregon Medical Marijuana Online System (OMMOS), and that they must report their onsite marijuana inventory and any sales.

Sentencing Policy

Colorado House Panel Advances Drug Defelonization Bill. The House Finance Committee has approved HB19-1263, which would change the penalty for drug possession offenses from felonies to misdemeanors. The bill was approved by the House Judiciary Committee last week. The bill now goes to the House Appropriations Committee.

Chronicle AM: CA Cities Sue State Over Pot Deliveries, Fed Bill Targets Chinese Fentanyl, More... (4/8/19)

A Hawaii decriminalization bill nears passage, some California cities are suing the state over being forced to allow marijuana deliveries, the 3rd Circuit clarifies the law on intent to distribute, and more.

A bipartisan federal bill targeting Chinese fentanyl production has been filed. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

California Cities That Restrict Marijuana Sales Sue State Over Allowing Deliveries. Twenty-four cities that ban legal marijuana sales filed suit against the state last Thursday, arguing that allowing home deliveries in those locales violates the state's marijuana laws. The lawsuit comes after the California Bureau of Cannabis Control adopted a rule in January that permits state-licensed companies to deliver marijuana in cities that ban pot shops.

Florida Legalization Bill Killed. A bill that would have legalized marijuana in the Sunshine State is dead. HB 1117, filed by Rep. Carlos Guillermo Smith (D) was killed in the House Judiciary Committee, where, he said, "It got no hearing, no debate, no vote. Just like they always do."

Hawaii Senate Committee Approves Decriminalization Bill. The Senate Ways and Means Committee has approved a bill that would decriminalize the possession of up to three grams of marijuana, HB 1383. The bill has already passed out of the House and two other Senate committees and now heads for a Senate floor vote. If it passes there, it will then go to a conference committee to iron out differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill.

North Dakota Legalization Initiative Organizers to Try Again in 2020. Legalize ND, the folks behind the failed 2018 legalization initiative, will be back in 2020, the group said last Thursday. Organizers said they hoped to have initiative language in place by mid-summer. The new measure will include possession limits, growing limits, taxes on sales, banning of edible gummies, packaging and licensing requirements and wouldn't allow any type of advertising of products.

Medical Marijuana

New Mexico Governor Signs Omnibus Medical Marijuana Bill. Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) has signed SB 406 into law. The bill makes broad changes in the state's medical marijuana program, including allowing medical marijuana in schools and allowing licensed manufacturers to process home-grown marijuana. And it allows for reciprocity with other medical marijuana states and protects workers who are medical marijuana patients.

Prosecution

Third Circuit Tosses Heroin Dealer's Conviction, Clarifies Law on Intent to Distribute. The US 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals has thrown out the conviction of a heroin dealer, ruling that a conviction for intent to distribute 1,000 grams or more of heroin must be based on evidence that the defendant possessed or distributed that quantity at a single time and not based on adding up several smaller possessions and distributions during the indictment period.

Foreign Policy

Bipartisan Bill Targets China Over Fentanyl. Sens. Chuck Schumer (D-NY) and Tom Cotton (R-AR) led a bipartisan group of senators in filing a bill that would slap sanctions on China if it fails to live up to its recent promise to regulate fentanyl as a controlled substance. The Fentanyl Sanctions Act allots $600 million to law enforcement and intelligence officials to identify producers and traffickers of the drug and would block access to US markets for Chinese chemical and pharmaceutical companies if they are caught producing the drug.

Marijuana Laced with Fentanyl? No, Just Cluelessness by White House Drug Policy Advisor Kellyanne Conway [FEATURE]

Among other roles in the Trump administration, Kellyanne Conway is the White House's opioid crisis czar. But a comment she made last week demonstrates how totally clueless and unqualified for the job she is.

Kellyanne Conway, Trump drug policy advisor (somehow). (Twitter)
At a news conference before briefing Trump on the latest developments in the opioid crisis, Conway took on fentanyl, the powerful synthetic opioid linked to an ever-increasing number of overdose deaths in the country. The presidential advisor warned that fentanyl was turning up in other drugs, which is true. The illicit drug is showing up not only in heroin, where it might be expected to add to the opioid's kick but also in other powder drugs whose users are not even looking for an opioid high, such as the stimulants cocaine and methamphetamine.

The concern about drugs being adulterated with fentanyl is warranted. But Conway went a step further in her remarks, making a claim that would require only a moment's thought (or some actual familiarity with illicit drugs) for her to realize was not only false but ludicrous.

"People are unwittingly ingesting it," she said of fentanyl. "It's laced into heroin, marijuana, meth, cocaine, and it's also being distributed by itself."

Okay, one of those drugs is not like the others, and that should have been a signal to Conway that she was spouting horse manure. Fentanyl, heroin, cocaine, and meth are all drugs that come in powder form, making it easy to cut one with the other. Marijuana, on the other hand, consists of the flowering buds of a plant. Marijuana buds spotted with powdery white speckles would be obvious (and would probably have consumers wondering if that white stuff was mold).

There is also no evidence of marijuana adulterated with fentanyl despite some urban mythologizing by a handful of law enforcement officials, which was repeated by people who should know better, including Dr. Nora Volkow, head of the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

When questioned about Conway's fentanyl and marijuana claim, the White House press office pointed to a speech last year by Volkow. "Fentanyl is being used to lace a wide variety of drugs, including marijuana," she claimed.

When questioned about Volkow's claim, the NIDA press office cited "anecdotal reports" from law enforcement. But those "reports" were actually a single report from police in Vancouver, B.C., in 2015 that "fentanyl-laced marijuana" was killing area drug users. And despite the panic over the claim, Vancouver cops admitted a year later that they hadn't actually seen "fentanyl-laced marijuana".

Again in 2017, some Canadian officials claimed there had been fentanyl-laced marijuana deaths. The only problem with that claim is that Canadian coroners reported no such cases.

There are a couple of ways the fentanyl-laced marijuana myth could have come about. The first is that extremely sensitive fentanyl test strips, which detect concentrations as tiny as one-billionth of a gram, could have detected minuscule amounts of the drug on pot handled by people using fentanyl, much the same way $20-dollar bills are found to be widely contaminated with traces of cocaine. Just as you're not going to get high by licking a $20, you're not going to die by smoking weed contaminated by vanishingly-small traces of fentanyl.

The second link is the presence of marijuana in the bodies of some who have died of fentanyl overdoses. But that reveals only that some people use multiple drugs, not that the lethal fentanyl was in the weed.

The DEA, for its part, has not reported encountering "fentanyl-laced marijuana," but none of this has stopped Conway from making her bogus claim. She made the same claim to right activists at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in March.

That Conway continues to spout such nonsense is disturbing for a number of reasons, drug policy experts told Buzzfeed News last week.

"It's crazy that this story is coming out from our leaders," said epidemiologist Dan Ciccarone of the University of California, San Francisco. "It shows that concerns about fentanyl have reached the level of moral panic. Fear outweighs rational evidence. There is scant evidence for cannabis laced with fentanyl."

"This is part of a wider fentanyl panic that goes beyond having alternative facts and leads to bad decisions," added Northeastern University drug policy expert Leo Beletsky. "There's this mistaken belief that law enforcement are experts on the drugs they are seizing. That's just not the case, and that's part of the problem."

That's an important and under-emphasized point. Police are no more experts on drugs because they arrest drug users and sellers than they are experts on marital relations because they arrest people for domestic violence.

"The danger in a moral panic is that we see this overreaction that leads to a replay of the mistakes of the crack cocaine crisis," Beletsky said. "We need to move beyond the universe of alternative facts."

Unfortunately, this is an administration that swims in a sea of alternative facts. The least we can do is push back hard.

Chronicle AM: Trump Delays Border Shutdown Over Drugs, Migrants; NH House Approves Legal Pot, More... (4/5/19)

Trump pushes his threat to close down the border into the future, migrant workers in the state-legal marijuana industry are being denied citizenship, New Hampshire is one step closer to marijuana legalization, and more.

The US-Mexico border. No shutdown this year, Trump now says. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Legal Marijuana Industry Workers Are Being Denied Citizenship. At least two immigrant workers in Colorado's state-legal marijuana industry have been denied citizenship under a US Citizenship and Immigration Services policy that automatically denies citizenship to immigrants working in a business that involves a Schedule I drug. Denver Mayor Michael Hancock (D) has sent a letter to Attorney General William Barr (R) advocating for a change in the policy.

Arkansas Decriminalization Bill Stalled. A bill to make possession of an ounce or less of marijuana an administrative infraction instead of a misdemeanor failed to advance out of the House Judiciary Committee Thursday. Instead, bill sponsor Rep. Charles Blake (D-Little Rock) pulled HB 1972 after the committee requested more research instead of passing it.

New Hampshire House Approves Legalization Bill. The House voted 200-163 Thursday to approve HB 481, which would legalize marijuana in the Granite State. The bill's tax structure was amended in the House. Instead of a $30 an ounce tax as originally proposed, the bill now contains a 5% tax at the wholesale/cultivation level and a 9% tax at the retail level. The bill now heads to the Senate, where Democrats hold a 14-10 majority. Gov. Chris Sununu (R) remains opposed to legalizing marijuana.

Washington Bill Would Change Penalty for Sales to Minors from Felony to Misdemeanor. A bill to drastically reduce the penalty for sales to minors has passed the House and is now before the Senate Rules Committee. Under current law, any sales to minors is a felony, but HB 1792 would take that penalty from a felony down to a misdemeanor—unless the seller knew the buyer was a minor.

The Border

Trump Gives Mexico a Year to Stop the Flow of Drugs, Migrants. Retreating from his vow to shut down the US-Mexico border this week President Trump now says he will give Mexico a year to end the flow of migrants and illicit drugs across the border. If the problem persists, he said, he will impose auto tariffs, and if that doesn't work, he will then shut the border. "You know I will do it. I don’t play games. ... so we’re doing it to stop people. We’re gonna give them a one-year warning, and if the drugs don’t stop, or largely stop, we’re going to put tariffs on Mexico and products, in particular cars. The whole ballgame is cars. ... and if that doesn’t stop the drugs, we close the border," Trump told reporters at the White House. That is a significant retreat from his vow on March 29 to close the border "next week."

Chronicle AM: Guam Legalizes Pot, New Mexico Decriminalizes Pot, Andrew Yang Talks Drug Pardons, More... (4/4/19)

A US territory legalizes weed, a US state decriminalizes it, Florida medical marijuana battles continue, and more. 

Marijuana Policy

Federal Lawmakers Reintroduce STATES Act. A bipartisan group of lawmakers has refiled the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act, or STATES Act, in both the House and Senate. Presidential contender Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) was joined by Sen. Cory Gardner (R-CO) in filing the Senate bill, while Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and David Joyce (R-OH) sponsored the bill in the House.

Guam Legalizes Marijuana. Gov. Leon Guerrero (D) Thursday signed a marijuana legalization bill into law, making Guam the first entity to legalize marijuana this year and the second US territory to do so, after the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. The law will create a system of taxed and regulated sales, with a 15% excise tax.

New Mexico Decriminalizes Marijuana. Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) has signed into law a bill decriminalizing the possession of up to a half ounce of marijuana. The maximum penalty will be a $50 fine. The legislation also reduces penalties for pot paraphernalia.

Medical Marijuana

Florida House Committee Votes to Limit Strength of Smokable Marijuana. The House Health and Human Services Committee voted Wednesday to cap the amount of THC allowed in smokable marijuana flowers at 10% despite the objections of patient advocates who noted that much stronger buds are already available on the market. The move comes less than a month after the legislature removed a ban on the use of smokable marijuana.

Florida Judge Rules Patients Have No Right to Grow Their Own. The 1st District Court of Appeals ruled Wednesday that a Tampa patient does not have the legal right to grow his own medicine. The decision overturns a lower court ruling that held the patient could grow plants to be juiced as part of his treatment for cancer.

Drug Policy

Democratic Presidential Contender Andrew Yang Calls for Legalized Marijuana, Commutations for Non-Violent Drug Offenders.  Presidential contender Andrew Yang said Wednesday he would issue mass commutations for imprisoned non-violent drug offenders on 4/20. "I would legalize marijuana and I would pardon everyone who's in jail for a non-violent, drug-related offense," Yang said. "I would pardon them all on April 20, 2021, and I would high-five them on their way out of jail."

(This article was prepared by StoptheDrugWar.org's 501(c)(4) lobbying nonprofit, the Drug Reform Coordination Network, which also pays the cost of maintaining this website. DRCNet Foundation takes no positions on candidates for public office, in compliance with section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and does not pay for reporting that could be interpreted or misinterpreted as doing so.)

Medical Marijuana Update

An Arizona Walmart worker wins a drug testing case, CBD bills are on the move, no edibles for North Dakota, and more.

Alabama

Alabama Medical Marijuana Bill Filed. More than a dozen legislators have filed HB 243, the CARE Act, which would create the Alabama Cannabis Commission, establish a patient registry system, and extend an earlier law that allowed the University of Alabama-Birmingham to study the effects of CBD on epileptic patients. This bill would allow for the use of medical marijuana, not just CBD.

Arizona

Arizona Federal Judge Rules for Medical Marijuana-Using Walmart Worker. An Arizona federal district court judge ruled March 19 that Walmart wrongfully fired a long-time employee who was a medical marijuana patient after a drug test returned positive results for marijuana because the company did not establish through expert evidence that she was impaired by marijuana at work. The court held that Walmart's action violated protections in the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act.

Colorado

Colorado Governor Signs Medical Marijuana for Autism Bill. Gov. Jared Polis (D) on Tuesday signed into law HB 19-1028, which adds autism to the list of disabling medical conditions that qualify a person to use medical marijuana. A similar bill passed the legislature last year but was vetoed by then-Gov. John Hickenlooper (D), who cited concerns from medical professionals.

Georgia

Georgia Legislature Approves CBD Oil Access Bill. Both the House and the Senate have now approved HB 324, which makes it legal to possess CBD cannabis oil and bring it across state lines. The bill also sets up a framework for the growth and sale of CBD cannabis oil in the state. Currently, state law allows the use of CBD oil, but there is no way for patients to obtain it.

Kansas

Kansas CBD Oil Bill Passes House. The House passed HB 2244 last Wednesday. The bill would allow parents of minor patients to travel to Colorado to obtain CBD oil and bring it back to Kansas legally.

New Mexico

New Mexico Regulators Reaffirm Support for Medical Marijuana for Opioid Users. The state's Medical Cannabis Advisory Board voted 4-0 Friday to reaffirm its support for making medical marijuana available for people struggling with opioid addiction. That increases the pressure on Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) to have the state's health secretary add opioid addiction as a qualifying condition.

North Dakota

North Dakota Senate Rejects Allowing Edibles. The Senate last Monday narrowly rejected HB1364, which would have allowed medical marijuana patients to buy and use edible products. The measure had passed the House and actually won majority support in the Senate but fell short of the two-thirds majority required to amend a recent ballot measure. Senators expressed fears children would get access to the drug.

South Carolina

South Carolina Senate Panel Advances Medical Marijuana Bill. A subcommittee of the Senate Medical Affairs Committee approved SB 366, the Compassionate Care Act, on a 5-1 vote on March 19. The vote came after the subcommittee accepted amendments aimed at easing law enforcement opposition to the bill, among them, banning certain transportation workers from participating, working toward a better method of detecting marijuana-impaired driving, and tightening the definition of a debilitating condition. The bill now goes before the full committee before heading for a Senate floor vote.

West Virginia

West Virginia Governor Vetoes Medical Cannabis Vertical Integration Bill, But Fix May Appear on Special Session Call. Gov. Jim Justice (R) has vetoed a bill that would allow vertical integration of medical marijuana businesses. The measure, HB 2079, may, however, be taken up in a special session set to resume in May.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Chronicle AM: CO Drug Defelonization Bill Advances, ND Moves to End Civil Forfeiture, More... (4/3/19)

Drug defelonization is advancing in Colorado, asset forfeiture reform heads to the governor in North Dakota, New Jersey bail reforms are having a dramatic impact, and more.

North Dakota legislators are making it harder for cops to get their hands on cash and property. (Creative Commons)
Medical Marijuana

Colorado Governor Signs Medical Marijuana for Autism Bill. Gov. Jared Polis (D) on Tuesday signed into law HB 19-1028, which adds autism to the list of disabling medical conditions that qualify a person to use medical marijuana. A similar bill passed the legislature last year but was vetoed by then-Gov. John Hickenlooper (D), who cited concerns from medical professionals.

Hemp

Idaho Senate Approves Modified Hemp Bill, House Unhappy. The Senate on Monday approved a hemp bill, HB 122, but amended it to address law enforcement concerns, leaving House backers withdrawing their support from the bill. Rep. Dorothy Moon (R) withdrew as a sponsor, saying the amended bill effectively "makes hemp illegal to grow, possess and transport in Idaho."

Asset Forfeiture

North Dakota Senate Approves Bill Ending Civil Asset Forfeiture. The Senate voted 46-1 Monday to approve a bill requiring a criminal conviction before authorities can seize cash or valuables.  The House passed HB 1286 in February. The bill now goes to the governor.

Bail Reform

New Jersey Judiciary Releases Annual Bail Reform Report, with Additional Key Statistics. The New Jersey Judiciary released its second Annual Report to the Legislature and Governor on the state’s historic bail reform law. Key findings include that the state's pretrial jail population has declined 43.9 percent since December 31, 2015, and that last year, only 102 people had cash bail set for them out of more than 44,000 criminal defendants.

Sentencing

Colorado Proposal to Defelonize Drug Possession Offenses Advances. The House Judiciary Committee approved a bill 8-3 Tuesday that would reduce the penalties for drug possession offenses from felonies to misdemeanors. HB19-1263 will now advance to the House Finance Committee.

Medical Marijuana Update

An Arizona Walmart worker wins a drug testing case, CBD bills are on the move, no edibles for North Dakota, and more. 

Alabama

Alabama Medical Marijuana Bill Filed. More than a dozen legislators have filed HB 243, the CARE Act, which would create the Alabama Cannabis Commission, establish a patient registry system, and extend an earlier law that allowed the University of Alabama-Birmingham to study the effects of CBD on epileptic patients. This bill would allow for the use of medical marijuana, not just CBD.

Arizona

Arizona Federal Judge Rules for Medical Marijuana-Using Walmart Worker. An Arizona federal district court judge ruled March 19 that Walmart wrongfully fired a long-time employee who was a medical marijuana patient after a drug test returned positive results for marijuana because the company did not establish through expert evidence that she was impaired by marijuana at work. The court held that Walmart's action violated protections in the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act.

Georgia

Georgia Legislature Approves CBD Oil Access Bill. Both the House and the Senate have now approved HB 324, which makes it legal to possess CBD cannabis oil and bring it across state lines. The bill also sets up a framework for the growth and sale of CBD cannabis oil in the state. Currently, state law allows the use of CBD oil, but there is no way for patients to obtain it.

Kansas

Kansas CBD Oil Bill Passes House. The House passed HB 2244 last Wednesday. The bill would allow parents of minor patients to travel to Colorado to obtain CBD oil and bring it back to Kansas legally.

New Mexico

New Mexico Regulators Reaffirm Support for Medical Marijuana for Opioid Users. The state's Medical Cannabis Advisory Board voted 4-0 Friday to reaffirm its support for making medical marijuana available for people struggling with opioid addiction. That increases the pressure on Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) to have the state's health secretary add opioid addiction as a qualifying condition.

North Dakota

North Dakota Senate Rejects Allowing Edibles. The Senate last Monday narrowly rejected HB1364, which would have allowed medical marijuana patients to buy and use edible products. The measure had passed the House and actually won majority support in the Senate but fell short of the two-thirds majority required to amend a recent ballot measure. Senators expressed fears children would get access to the drug.

South Carolina

South Carolina Senate Panel Advances Medical Marijuana Bill. A subcommittee of the Senate Medical Affairs Committee approved SB 366, the Compassionate Care Act, on a 5-1 vote on March 19. The vote came after the subcommittee accepted amendments aimed at easing law enforcement opposition to the bill, among them, banning certain transportation workers from participating, working toward a better method of detecting marijuana-impaired driving, and tightening the definition of a debilitating condition. The bill now goes before the full committee before heading for a Senate floor vote.

West Virginia

West Virginia Governor Vetoes Medical Cannabis Vertical Integration Bill, But Fix May Appear on Special Session Call. Gov. Jim Justice (R) has vetoed a bill that would allow vertical integration of medical marijuana businesses.  The measure, HB 2079, may, however, be taken up in a special session set to resume in May.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

A pair of New Jersey cops go rogue, prison guards go wild, and more. Let's get to it:

In Ocean Township, New Jersey, an Ocean Township police officer was arrested March 20 on multiple drug charges. Officer Ryan Vaccaro, who is also head of the local Police Benevolent Association, got caught with multiple unprescribed doses of Clenbuterol, a steroid. He is charged with possession of prescription drugs and possession of prescription drugs with intent to distribute, according to municipal court records. 

In Ridgeville, South Carolina, a state prison guard was arrested last Thursday for bringing marijuana and other contraband into the prison. Lieber Correctional Institution guard Anthony Murgolo admitted bringing the goodies into the prison with the intent of selling them. He is charged with misconduct in office, possession with intent to distribute marijuana and introduction of contraband to inmates.

In Baton Rouge, Louisiana, an Angola state prison guard was arrested last Thursday after a shakedown uncovered various drugs inside her vehicle. Corrections Officer Crystal Jenkins, 40, got caught with 14 grams of heroin, an ounce of heroin powder, 12 ounces of marijuana, 3 ½ ounces of synthetic cannabinoids, four ounces of methamphetamine, and a digital scale in her car. She is charged with distributing marijuana, synthetic marijuana, and heroin, one count of possession with intent to distribute methamphetamine, and one count of introduction of contraband into a penal institution. She admitted to trafficking inside the prison and resigned from her position.

In Joliet, Illinois, a former Joliet police lieutenant was arrested last Friday was arrested for what appears to be stealing dope from the evidence room. Dennis McWherter, 51, faces charges of official misconduct, theft, and possession of a controlled substance. The official misconduct charge indicates he committed the offenses while working in an official law enforcement capacity.

In Princeton, Indiana, a Princeton police officer was arrested Monday for helping a subject detained in a drug investigation discard his dope before arriving for booking at the police station. Officer George was called to assist in a DEA-directed traffic stop bust and was transporting one of the detainees to the station when he became aware the suspect had 77 grams of heroin in his pants. Gibson allowed him to discard the drugs, but other officers found the dope and notified the Indiana State Police Organized Crime and Corruption Unit, which investigated and arrested Gibson. He is charged with official misconduct.

In Salem, Oregon, a former Salem police officer was sentenced last Wednesday to 18 months' probation and 20 days in jail after being caught in February with methamphetamine and stolen computer equipment. Seth Thayres, 31, pleaded guilty to two counts of first-degree theft. He still faces an additional 17 counts of computer crime, theft, and meth possession in another county. He is accused of stealing from several businesses including a legal firm, a tech business and a production company. He had been on administrative leave since October and was awaiting a fitness-for-duty evaluation when arrested. He resigned from the department after his arrest.

In Paterson, New Jersey, a former Paterson police officer was sentenced last Wednesday for dealing drugs, including some he stole from a crime scene, as well as assaulting a hospital patient in an unrelated case. Ruben McAusland, 27, had pleaded guilty in June to possessing drugs with the intent to distribute and depriving the patient of his civil rights. He got 66 months in federal prison.

Chronicle AM: China Bans All Fentanyl Variants, DC Gets 76,000 Naloxone Kits, More... (4/2/19)

China bans all fentanyl variants, Sri Lanka is to resume drug executions, marijuana sentencing reform bills advance in Iowa and Texas, and more.

A lethal dose of fentanyl (dea.gov)
Marijuana Policy

Federal Bill Filed to Protect Legal Marijuana States. For the fifth consecutive congressional session, Rep. Diana DeGette (D-CO) has filed a bill to block the federal government from going after states that have legalized marijuana. The Respect States’ and Citizens’ Rights Act would amend the Controlled Substances Act to exempt states with legal marijuana from federal intervention. The bill is not yet available on the congressional website.

Arkansas Decriminalization Bill Filed. Rep. Charles Blake (D-Little Rock) and cosponsors filed HB 1972 on Monday. The measure would decriminalize the possession of up to an ounce of marijuana with a maximum $200 fine. Currently, possession of up to four ounces is a misdemeanor punishable by up to a year in jail.

Iowa Bill to Reduce Pot Penalties Advances. A bill that would reduce penalties for possessing five grams of weed or less passed the Senate Monday on a 40-8 vote. SF 378 would move possession of five grams or less from a serious misdemeanor to a simple misdemeanor. The bill now heads to the House.

Texas Decriminalization Bill Advances. A bill to decriminalize small-time pot possession was approved by the House Criminal Jurisprudence Committee on Monday. HB 63 would reduce criminal penalties for low-levels of marijuana possession, allowing a person carrying cannabis to receive two civil penalties before facing misdemeanor charges. The next step is a House floor vote.  

Harm Reduction

New Jersey Speeds Access to Opioid Addiction Medication. The state's Human Services Commissioner announced that beginning this week, Medicaid recipients will no longer have to wait for approval from an insurance company before a doctor can prescribe them medication-assisted treatments. Previously, people faced delays as doctors submitted paperwork and waited for an okay from the patient's Medicaid managed-care plan.

DC Police, Community Groups Will Get 76,000 Naloxone Kits. The city of Washington, DC, has purchased 76,000 kits of naloxone, the opioid overdose reversal drug. The kits will be distributed to police officers and community health organizations by September 30. Last year, the District saw more deaths from drug overdoses than from homicides.

International

China Bans All Types of Fentanyl. Chinese officials said Monday that the country is banning all variants of fentanyl by declaring them controlled substances under Chinese law. The move makes good a pledge Premier Xi Jinping made to President Trump late last year. The move could slow the supply of the drug and its variants to the US, where it is implicated in tens of thousands of overdose deaths. But the ban does not cover precursor chemicals, which are often sent to Mexico, where traffickers use them to produce fentanyl.

Sri Lanka Burns Cocaine Haul as President Announces First Executions in Decades. President Maithripala Sirisena used the public burning of seized cocaine to announce the first executions in decades as part of a crackdown on drugs. ’To curb the illegal drug menace, it is necessary to implement the death penalty," he said.  "The death penalty will be implemented in the coming days. The list has been prepared and we have decided on the date too. The move toward a drug crackdown has been criticized by human rights groups and the European Union. 

Chronicle AM: Israeli Pot Decrim Now in Effect, NY Legal Pot Push Hits Bump, More... (4/1/19)

Pot legalization fails to make the budget in New York, New Mexico regulators reaffirm their support for medical marijuana for people addicted to opioids, Israel pot decriminalization is now in effect, and more. 

Marijuana Policy

New York Budget Proposal Doesn’t Include Marijuana Legalization. Marijuana legalization will not be fast-tracked as part of the state’s budget because lawmakers could not reach agreement by April 1, but Gov. Andrew Cuomo says the state will pass it by June. "We will get marijuana done, it’s not a question of political desire, it’s a question of practical reality of how you put the new system in place," Cuomo said.

Medical Marijuana

Georgia Legislature Approves CBD Oil Access Bill. Both the House and the Senate have now approved HB 324, which makes it legal to possess CBD cannabis oil and bring it across state lines. The bill also sets up a framework for the growth and sale of CBD cannabis oil in the state. Currently, state law allows the use of CBD oil, but there is no way for patients to obtain it.

New Mexico Regulators Reaffirm Support for Medical Marijuana for Opioid Users. The state's Medical Cannabis Advisory Board voted 4-0 Friday to reaffirm its support for making medical marijuana available for people struggling with opioid addiction. That increases the pressure on Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) to have the state's health secretary add opioid addiction as a qualifying condition.

West Virginia Governor Vetoes Medical Cannabis Vertical Integration Bill, But Fix May Appear on Special Session Call. Gov. Jim Justice (R) has vetoed a bill that would allow vertical integration of medical marijuana businesses.  The measure, HB 2079, may, however, be taken up in a special session set to resume in May.

International

Israel Marijuana Decriminalization Now in Effect. Marijuana possession is decriminalized as of April 1. Under new guidelines, possession of small amounts of marijuana in private homes will no longer be treated as an offense, criminal or otherwise. Public possession will generate a fine of around $275, with that fine doubling for a second offense within five years. Only if someone commits a third public possession offense within seven years will he face the possibility of criminal prosecution. 

Chronicle AM: Fed Asset Forfeiture Reform Bill Filed, MT Legal Pot Bill Killed, More... (3/29/19)

A Michigan commission wisely recommends no de jure limit on THC in driver's blood, a Montana marijuana legalization bill gets killed in committee, a federal bill to end civil asset forfeiture is filed, and more.

Various states and the Congress are taking up asset forfeiture reform. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Michigan Regulators Recommend No Legal Limit on THC in Drivers. The state's Impaired Driving Safety Commission has recommended that the state set no limit for the amount of THC in a driver's blood. Instead of setting a limit similar to that for blood alcohol, the commission recommending using roadside sobriety tests to measure impaired driving. "The only reasonable way to do this right now is to demonstrate that people are impaired," Norbert Kaminski, professor of pharmacology and toxicology at Michigan State University and commission member, said. 

Montana Legalization Bill Killed. A bill to legalize marijuana died in committee on Thursday. HB 770 was killed in the House Taxation Committee after law enforcement representatives called legalization "a nightmare" for state citizens.

Asset Forfeiture

Federal Asset Forfeiture Reform Bill Filed. Reps. Tim Walberg (R-MI) and Jamie Raskin (D-MD) filed the Fifth Amendment Integrity Restoration (FAIR) Act on Wednesday. The bill, HR 1895, would bring sweeping reforms to the federal use of civil asset forfeiture, most critically, it would end the equitable sharing program, which local and state law enforcement uses to evade restrictions on seizures under state laws.

Minnesota Asset Forfeiture Reform Bill Advances. The Senate Judiciary and Public Safety Finance and Policy Committee voted Tuesday to advance Senate File 2155, which would replace a number of state asset forfeiture laws with a single statewide law and repeal administrative forfeiture, an archaic process that allows assets to be seized without a court order.

South Carolina Asset Forfeiture Reform Bill Passes House. The House on Wednesday approved a bill that would require the State Law Enforcement Division to keep a database of seizures and disbursements. HB 590 faces one more routine vote before it is sent to the Senate.

Chronicle AM: No Legal Pot for NJ (Yet), CO Drug Defelonization Bill Filed, Guam Legal Pot Bill, More... (3/28/19)

New Jersey doesn't yet have the votes to pass legalization, Guam sends a legalization bill to the governor, a Colorado drug defelonization bill gets filed, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Marijuana Banking Bill Advances in House. The House Financial Services Committee voted 45-15 Thursday to approve HR 1595, the Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Banking Act. The bill aims at ensuring that state-legal marijuana operations have access to banking and financial services. This marks the first time a marijuana banking bill has been approved by a congressional committee.

Connecticut Legalization Bill Wins Committee Vote. The General Law Committee voted 10-8 Monday to approve a bill that spells out many of the details of a proposed system of legal marijuana for adults. The bill is one of a number of bills aimed at legalizing pot this session and could eventually be combined with others to craft a comprehensive bill.

Guam Legalization Bill Heads for Governor’s Desk. Legislators in the US island territory voted to approve a marijuana legalization bill Wednesday. The bill would create a system of taxed and regulated marijuana commerce, as well as allowing adults to possess, grow, and consume their own. The measure, Bill 32-35, now goes to the desk of Gov. Lou Leon Guerrero (D), who is expected to sign it. If she does, Guam will become the first US state or territory to pass legalization this year.

New Hampshire Legalization Bill Wins Committee Vote. The House Ways and Means Committee voted 14-6 Wednesday to approve HB 481, which would legalize marijuana for adults and create a system of taxed and regulated marijuana commerce. The bill would also allow adults to grow and possess their own. The bill now goes to a House floor vote before heading to the Senate.

New Jersey Legalization Bill Stalled. A much anticipated Monday vote on the legalization bill, A 4497/S 2703, didn’t happen after legislative leaders realized they still didn’t have the votes in the Senate to pass it. "History is rarely made on the first try," Gov. Phil Murphy (D) said in a press conference announcing the postponement. "Certainly I’m disappointed but we are not defeated… We all remain committed to passing this bill and making our state a national model for justice and opportunity because ultimately this is the right thing to do for New Jersey, and we know the people of New Jersey are on our side."

Medical Marijuana

Alabama Medical Marijuana Bill Filed. More than a dozen legislators have filed HB 243, the CARE Act, which would create the Alabama Cannabis Commission, establish a patient registry system, and extend an earlier law that allowed the University of Alabama-Birmingham to study the effects of CBD on epileptic patients. This bill would allow for the use of medical marijuana, not just CBD.

Kansas CBD Oil Bill Passes House. The House passed HB 2244 on Wednesday. The bill would allow parents of minor patients to travel to Colorado to obtain CBD oil and bring it back to Kansas legally.

North Dakota Senate Rejects Allowing Edibles. The Senate on Monday narrowly rejected HB1364, which would have allowed medical marijuana patients to buy and use edible products. The measure had passed the House and actually won majority support in the Senate but fell short of the two-thirds majority required to amend a recent ballot measure. Senators expressed fears children would get access to the drug.

Asset Forfeiture

North Dakota Asset Forfeiture Bill Wins Senate Support. A civil asset forfeiture reform bill, HB 1286, that has already passed the House found support in the Senate Tuesday. Sen. Diane Larson (R-Bismarck), head of the Senate Judiciary Committee said after a hearing she was open to amending the bill to get it passed. As it stands, the bill would require a conviction before forfeiture proceedings could take place.

Drug Policy

Colorado Drug Defelonization Bill Filed. A bill to defelonize the possession of personal use amounts of all drugs, HB 19-1263, has been filed in the House. Under the bill, those convicted of simple drug possession would face misdemeanor charges with a maximum sentence of six months in jail. The current maximum sentence for simple possession is 18 months. The bill was introduced last Friday. 

Chronicle AM: NJ Legal Pot Vote on Monday, Houston Police Tighten No-Knock Warrants, More... (3/22/19)

New Jersey legislators will vote on pot legalization on Monday, but the votes aren't quite there yet; Illinois legislators want to slow down on pot legalization, Houston cops restrict no-knock search warrants, and more.

In the wake of a deadly drug raid, Houston police are restricting the use of no-knock search warrants. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Illinois House Majority Wants to Slow Down on Legalization. A majority of House members have signed on as cosponsors of a resolution to slow down the process of legalizing marijuana in the state. Sixty of 118 House members signed on to the resolution, which calls for more time to study the social impact of legalization and results from other states. A legalization bill will likely be introduced next month and could be voted on as early as May.

Montana Poll Has Narrow Majority for Legalization.  A University of Montana big Sky poll has support for marijuana legalization at 51%. About 80% of Democrats supported it, but only 33% of Republicans did.

New Jersey Legalization Vote Count Goes Down to Wire. The legislature is set to vote on a legalization bill, A 4497/S 2703, on Monday, and it's not clear yet whether it will pass. As of today, Gov. Phil Murphy (D) and legislative leaders say they are still a handful of votes short, but expect heavy lobbying to be going on between now and Monday morning.

Law Enforcement

Houston Police Announce Restrictions on No-Knock Search Warrants. In the wake of a February drug raid that left two civilians dead, the Houston Police have announced that any no-knock drug warrants must be signed off on by a district court judge. That would be after the request for the warrant is approved by the police chief or his designated representative, and only SWAT team members will execute those warrants.

Chronicle AM: NY Legal Pot Push Hits Bump, AZ Judge Rules for Fired Walmart MMJ-Using Worker, More... (3/21/19)

Southern California will see its first festival featuring legal pot sales and consumption this weekend, an Arizona federal judge slaps down Walmart for firing a medical marijuana patient without proving impairment at work, New York's governor acknowledges legalization isn't happening fast enough to be included in the budget, and more.

NY Gov. Andrew Cuomo (D) concedes that marijuana legalization isn't happening fast enough to make the budget. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Southern California's First Festival with Legal Marijuana Sales and Consumption is This Weekend. The High Times Dope Cup High Desert festival set for the high desert town of Adelanto this weekend will be the first in Southern California where marijuana can be legally purchased and consumed. Pot smoking will be allowed in designated areas at the festival, and dozens of vendors will be selling weed to anyone 21 or over. The first Northern California festival allowing sales and consumption was Hempcon in San Francisco earlier this year.

New York Governor Drops Marijuana Legalization from Proposed State Budget. Gov. Andrew Cuomo (D) said Tuesday he was dropping his proposal to legalize marijuana from his proposed state budget. He said because he was unable to arrive at quick passage of a marijuana legalization bill he could no longer count on marijuana revenues in his budget forecast. Cuomo and legislative leaders said there is still a chance legalization could be passed after the budget is passed and before the June 19 end of the legislative session.

Medical Marijuana

Arizona Federal Judge Rules for Medical Marijuana-Using Walmart Worker. An Arizona federal district court judge has ruled that Walmart wrongfully fired a long-time employee who was a medical marijuana patient after a drug test returned positive results for marijuana because the company did not establish through expert evidence that she was impaired by marijuana at work. The court held that Walmart's action violated protections in the Arizona Medical Marijuana Act.

South Carolina Senate Panel Advances Medical Marijuana Bill. A subcommittee of the Senate Medical Affairs Committee has approved SB 366, the Compassionate Care Act, on a 5-1 vote. The vote came after the subcommittee accepted amendments aimed at easing law enforcement opposition to the bill, among them banning certain transportation workers from participating, working toward a better method of detecting marijuana-impaired driving, and tightening the definitiation of a debilitating condition. The bill now goes before the full committee before headed for a Senate floor vote.

Medical Marijuana Update

Floridians will finally be able to smoke their medical marijuana, Oklahoma rules get set, draft Missouri rules get posted, and more.

Arkansas

Arkansas Senate Committee Votes to Restrict Edible and Drinkable Medical Marijuana. The Senate Public Health Committee voted last Wednesday to approve SB 440, which was originally written to ban the manufacture or sale of medical marijuana edibles or potables. But the bill as passed by the committee was amended to not ban such products, but to require legislative changes that will mandate a cumbersome regulatory process the industry doesn’t want.

Florida

Florida Bill to Allow Smokable Medical Marijuana Heads to Governor’s Desk. With a final vote in the House last Wednesday, the legislature has approved SB 182, which repeals a prior legislative ban on smokable medical marijuana. Former Gov. Rick Scott (R) had supported the ban, appealing a lower court decision to end it, but current Gov. Ron DeSantis (R) had urged the legislature to end it, vowing to end the state’s appeal if lawmakers didn’t act by the end of this week.

Florida Governor Signs Smokable Medical Marijuana Bill into Law. Gov. Ron DeSantis (R) on Monday signed into law SB 182, which ends a legislatively-mandated ban on smoking medical marijuana. The ban had been thrown out in the courts, but former Gov. Rick Scott (R) had appealed to reinstate it. DeSantis had threatened to drop the appeal if the legislature didn't act, but the legislature has acted and now the ban is dead.

Missouri

Missouri Posts Draft Rules for Medical Marijuana Program. The Department of Health and Senior Services released more drafts of rules for the state's emerging medical marijuana system last Thursday. The rules cover marijuana cultivation facilities, manufacturing facilities and medical marijuana establishments in general. Click on the link for a detailed analysis of the proposed regulations.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma Governor Signs Medical Marijuana Rules into Law.  Gov. Kevin Stitt (R) last Thursday signed into law new regulations for the state’s nascent medical marijuana industry. The legislation sets guidelines for inventory testing and tracking, advertising, and packaging and labeling, among other things. It also allows employers to fire medical marijuana users in certain safety-sensitive positions, such as fire fighters and heavy machinery operators.

Chronicle AM: National Pot Poll Hits Record High, Mexican Opium Prices in Free Fall, More.... (3/20/19)

The annual General Social Survey has support for marijuana legalization at an all-time high, a federal marijuana banking bill will get a hearing next week, Mexican opium poppy farmers are getting squeezed hard by fentanyl, and more.

Marijuana Policy

New National Poll Shows Support for Marijuana Legalization Still Rising. A new General Social Survey poll, which has been measuring support for marijuana legalization since the 1970s, has support at 61% this year, up from 57% two years ago and an all-time high for this poll. Support cut across all demographic and political lines, with a majority of Republicans (54%) supporting legalization for the first time. In the first General Social Survey poll in 1973, only 19% of respondents supported legalization.

Federal Marijuana Banking Bill Has Markup Set for Next Week. The House Financial Services Committee will meet next Tuesday for a markup on the Safe Banking Act, HR 1595. The bill aims to remove barriers to access to financial services for the marijuana industry.

Hawaii Decriminalization Bill Nears Final Senate Vote. With favorable votes in two Senate committees Tuesday, HB 1383 now heads for a final Senate floor vote. The bill would decriminalize the possession of up to three grams of marijuana. It has already passed the House.

Rhode Island Senate Committees Hold Joint Hearing on Governor's Marijuana Legalization Proposal. The Senate Finance and Judiciary committees held a joint hearing Tuesday on Article 20 of Gov. Gina Raimondo’s proposed budget, which features a plan to legalize, regulate and tax marijuana for adult use. It also includes amendments to Rhode Island’s existing medical marijuana and hemp laws. The House Finance Committee will hold a hearing Wednesday.

International

Mexican Opium Prices in Freefall in Face of Fentanyl. Farmgate prices for Mexican opium plummeted dramatically last year because of the rise in demand for the synthetic opioid fentanyl about US drug users, according to a study from the Network of Researchers in International Affairs (Noria). They found that the price for opium gum, the raw material for heroin, dropped from just above $1,000 a kilo in 2017 to around $350 a kilo last year. The researchers noted that some farmers had reported rumors of prices going even lower, for a price drop of as much as 80%. The resulting decline in income "is causing a series of various serious secondary economic effects" in poppy-growing communities, Noria said. "Many local peasants are not even making back their investment on the product; many families are losing their sole source of income; the amount of money flowing into the local economy has dried up almost completely; and many are leaving their villages for temporary agricultural work or even to work directly for the cartels," the report said. "The Mexican opium crisis looks like it might ruin the poorest areas of rural Mexico for good."

Alternative Values, Alternative Facts: UN Event on Media Disinformation and Drug War Human Rights Violations

Alternative Values, Alternative Facts:
Drug Policy and Justice as Casualties in the Struggle Between Authoritarianism and Democracy

side event at the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs annual meeting
Vienna International Centre, Thursday 21 March, 2:20-3:10pm CET
(9:20am US eastern time, 9:20pm Manila time)
Conference Room M3, Floor M01 (one up from ground level)

Facebook Live video or our event is archived here. We will post a playlist version
of the video in the near future at https://stopthedrugwar.org/philippines.

featuring:

  • Chel Diokno
    Founding Dean of De La Salle College of Law, and Chairman of FLAG – Free Legal Assistance Group, Philippines (via Skype and video)
  • Pamela Combinido
    Researcher, Newton Tech4Dev Network (video)
  • Davey Alba
    Reporter, BuzzFeed (video)

moderated by:

  • David Borden
    Executive Director, DRCNet Foundation (AKA "StoptheDrugWar.org")

discussion and Q&A:

  • Chel Diokno
  • Marco Perduca
    Senator 2008-2013, Italy, and Associazone Luca Coscioni
  • David Borden
  • Others TBA

Sponsored by DRCNet Foundation, with AIDS and Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, A New PATH (Parents for Addiction Treatment and Healing), Arewa Youth Trust Foundation, Association for Safer Drug Policies in Norway, Associazione Luca Coscioni, Broken No More, Death Penalty Focus, FAAAT think & do tank, Forum Droghe, Legalize Belarus, NAMA Recovery, NEFFCON Nor-Cal, No Peace Without Justice, St. Ann's Corner of Harm Reduction, Sankalp Rehabilitation Trust, SA Drug Policy, SAOL Project, Science for Democracy, South Africa Network of People Who Use Drugs, Students for Sensible Drug Policy – Sierra Leone, Students for Sensible Drug Policy – University of Utah, TBHIV Care, UNIDOS-Mocambique

United Nations
Vienna
Austria

Chronicle AM: NJ Legal Pot Bill Moving, Trump Administration Backs Needle Exchange, More... (3/19/19)

Pot legalization bills advanced in the New Jersey legislature, an Oregon initiative would allow for social consumption spaces and protect workers, smokable medical marijuaan comes to Florida, Arkansas passes a civil asset forfeiture reform bill, and more.

The Trump administration doesn't like safe injection sites, but it's down with needle exchanges. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

New Jersey Legalization Bills Advance. Marijuana legalization bills advanced in the legislature Monday. The Assembly Appropriations Committee approved A 4497, while the Senate Judiciary Committee approved its companion measure, S 2703. The victories come a week after Gov. Phil Murphy (D) and legislative leaders reached an agreement on what legalization should look like. Final floor votes could come as early as next Monday.

Oregon Initiative Would Allow Indoor Pot Smoking, Protect Workers. Marijuana industry leaders have filed an initiative, the Legalization Justice Act of 2020, which would, among other things, allow for social consumption spaces, provide protections for workers who use marijuana off the job, and urge the state to protect its homegrown marijuana industry. Now, organizers must collect 1,000 signatures before the secretary of state's office drafts a ballot title. Once that step is completed, organizers will then have to gather 112,000 valid voter signatures to qualify for the November 2020 ballot.

Pennsylvania Legalization Bill Details Announced. State Sens. Daylin Leach (D) and Sharif Street (D) have released details of their pending legalization bill. The measure would allow for social consumption sites and the home cultivation of up to six plants. A tax rate has not been set, but the goal is a rate that "balances the need to undermine any illegal market and the needs to both pay for regulation of the industry and invest in those harmed by prohibition." There would be no cap on marijuana business licenses and their would be a tiered licensing system to help communities adversely affected by the war on drugs.

Medical Marijuana

Florida Governor Signs Smokable Medical Marijuana Bill into Law. Gov. Ron DeSantis (R) on Monday signed into law SB 182, which ends a legislatively-mandated ban on smoking medical marijuana. The ban had been thrown out in the courts, but former Gov. Rick Scott (R) had appealed to reinstate it. DeSantis had threatened to drop the appeal if the legislature didn't act, but the legislature has acted and now the ban is dead.

Asset Forfeiture

Arkansas Legislature Approves Asset Forfeiture Reform. The House last week unanimously approved SB 308, which will require police and prosecutors to win a criminal conviction in most cases before they can seize someone's property. The Senate approved it last month. It now is on the desk of Gov. Asa Hutchinson (R).

Harm Reduction

Trump Administration Backs Needle Exchange. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said Tuesday the Trump administration is backing needle exchange programs as part of its effort to end HIV transmission but will continue to oppose safe injection sites. The move represents a policy shift among Republicans, who have traditionally opposed needle exchanges, but Azar said they were necessary: "Syringe services programs aren’t necessarily the first thing that comes to mind when you think about a Republican health secretary, but we’re in a battle between sickness and health, between life and death," Azar said.

Transforming Global Drug Policy: From A Punisher Paradigm to Embracing Human Rights [FEATURE]

By its very nature, the global drug prohibition regime relies on the repressive apparatus of state actors to enforce compliance, and that has severe implications for human rights. Now, a coalition of United Nations member states, U.N. bodies, and leading human rights experts has launched a landmark set of international legal standards aimed at putting human rights concerns at the center of drug policy.

Drug execution in Iran, 2017. The Islamic Republic has greatly reduced the use of the death penalty for drugs. (handsoffcain)
The human rights implications of the global war on drugs cover a dizzying array of governmental abuses of their citizens. Whether it's the mass imprisonment of drug users in the US, the death squad-style atrocities of Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte's bloody anti-drug campaigns, the spraying of herbicides on coca-growing peasants in Colombia, forced drug treatment camps in Southeast Asia, or the resort to the death penalty for drug offenses in any number of countries, the quixotic global effort to eradicate drugs has left a trail of human rights abuses.

For years, human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have championed the need to put human rights front and center when it comes to drug policy. But with the issuance this week of the International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Policy recognition of the necessary centrality of human rights moves from the sidelines to the very center of the global drug prohibition regime. Released under the aegis of the U.N. Development Program and the Joint U.N. Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) with the endorsement of key member states, the guidelines create a comprehensive set of human rights standards to guide governments in developing drug policies that comply with basic standards of universal human rights.

They also come at a key juncture in the global drug policy-formation process. The guidelines are being released as high-level governmental representatives are gathered at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs in Vienna to shape a new global drug strategy. With decades of evidence showing the systemic failures of the punitive paradigm, including widespread human rights violations, the U.N. and member states are facing a rising clamor for a shift in policy -- one that not only respects human rights but also places global drug policy in line with broader U.N. objectives.

"Drug control policies intersect with much of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the pledge by Member States to leave no one behind. Approaches that violate human rights and fail to curb the illicit drug trade are leaving a trail of human suffering," said Mandeep Dhaliwal, director of UNDP's HIV, Health and Development Group. "For countries who are ready to place human dignity and sustainable development at the heart of their drug control policy, these guidelines offer valuable guidance to promote more effective and humane drug control policy."

universal human rights logo
One focus of the guidelines is criminal justice and the rule of law, and they feature recommendations across the realm of the administration of justice. Whether it's arbitrary arrest and detention, discriminatory policing practices, or drug decriminalization, the guidelines bring the global state of human rights law regarding drug policy into full view, including ending the death penalty for drug-related offenses.

Drug decriminalization gets particular attention. The guidelines note that at least 25 national governments have decriminalized the possession of drugs for personal use and that the U.N. system has jointly called for drug decriminalization as an alternative to arrest, conviction, and punishment of drug users.

"Punishment and exclusion have been instrumental to the war on drugs" said Judy Chang, Executive Director of the International Network of People who Use Drugs. "The time has come to privilege human dignity over social isolation and champion human rights, putting an end to the shameful legacy of mass incarceration."

But the guideline encompass more than criminal justice; they also make clear that a human rights emphasis is key in improving people's rights to health, an adequate standard of living, and to be free from torture. The guidelines say that states are obligated by their health obligations to ensure the availability and accessibility of harm reduction services, such as needle exchanges and safe consumption spaces. Those services must be adequately funded, appropriate for the needs of vulnerable groups, and respectful of the human dignity of their clients, the guidelines say.

"Ninety-nine percent of people who inject drugs do not have adequate access to harm reduction services and are left behind in progress against HIV," said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. "More than 12 percent of people who inject drugs are living with HIV and over half have hepatitis C. The only way to advance progress is to put people at the center, not drugs."

The guidelines also emphasize the importance of protecting the rights of farming communities -- especially women -- even to the extent of urging governments to temporarily permit the cultivation of illicit drug crops to allow farmers the chance to make a smooth transition to alternative crops. They cite Thailand's success in helping farmers move from opium production to alternative livelihoods.

Issuance of the guidelines will help member states, multilateral organizations, and civil society in their fight to help the rights-supporting U.N. Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights assume their deserved central role in the formulation of both international and national drug policies. For too long, globally accepted human rights standards have been sidelined by repressive approaches.

"Human rights should not just inform critiques of the response to drugs worldwide, they should also be the main drivers of its reform, underpinning checks and balances to break cycles of abuse" said Julie Hannah, Director of the International Centre on Human Rights and Drug Policy, University of Essex "Fighting inequality and injustice is a more effective way of addressing the global drug problem than prisons and police."

Chronicle AM: Legal Pot Bill This Week in NJ, Global Drug War Human Rights Guidelines Issued, More... (3/18/19)

A New Mexico pot legalization bill dies and the governor says she will take it up next year, Minneapolis will quit charging small-time pot offenders, UN bodies and member states issue drug war human rights guidelines, a federal prisoner sues for access to methadone treatment, and more.

The state of New Jersey is banking on marijuana tax revenues. Now, to get that bill passed. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Connecticut Democrats Unveil Legalization Package. A group of House Democrats held a press conference last Thursday to unveil a proposed package go bills to allow marijuana to be grown, processed, and sold to consumers in the state. The draft bills include a pilot plan for adult sales, but do not include letting people grow their own.

New Jersey Legalization Committee Votes Begin Today. The compromise legalization bill agreed to by Gov. Phil Murphy (D) and legislative leaders is due for committee votes Monday, with an eye toward final passage next Monday if all goes well. The bill would allow adults to possess up to an ounce, but not grow their own. It would also expunge records of past pot offenses and set up a system of taxed and regulated marijuana commerce.

New Mexico Decriminalization Bill Goes to Governor, But Legalization Bill Dies. In last minute action this past weekend, the legislature passed a pot decriminalization bill, SB 323, and sent it to the desk of Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D). That’s some small consolation for the failure of a legalization bill, HB 356, which passed the House but died in the Senate Finance Committee.

New Mexico Governor Adds Marijuana Legalization to 2020 Agenda. Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham said Sunday she will add marijuana legalization to the agenda of next year’s 30-day short session. The move comes after a bipartisan marijuana legalization bill managed to pass the House this session, only to be stalled in the Senate until the session expired on Saturday.

Minnesota’s Most Populous County Won’t Charge Small-Time Pot Offenders. Prosecutors in Hennepin County, the home of Minneapolis, will no longer prosecute people caught with small amounts of pot, County Attorney Mike Freeman said last Thursday. Under state law, possession of up to 42.5 grams is a misdemeanor, but possession of as little as 45 grams can be charged as a felony. Freeman said he will no longer charge anyone caught with less than 100 grams; instead, defendants will be considered for a diversion program.

Medical Marijuana

Missouri Posts Draft Rules for Medical Marijuana Program. The Department of Health and Senior Services released more drafts of rules for the state's emerging medical marijuana system last Thursday. The rules cover marijuana cultivation facilities, manufacturing facilities and medical marijuana establishments in general. Click on the link for a detailed analysis of the proposed regulations.

Oklahoma Governor Signs Medical Marijuana Rules into Law.  Gov. Kevin Stitt (R) last Thursday signed into law new regulations for the state’s nascent medical marijuana industry. The legislation sets guidelines for inventory testing and tracking, advertising, and packaging and labeling, among other things. It also allows employers to fire medical marijuana users in certain safety-sensitive positions, such as fire fighters and heavy machinery operators.

Hemp

Idaho Hemp Bill Moving. A bill to legalize hemp production, HB 122, passed out of a pair of committees last Thursday and is now headed for a House floor vote. The 2018 farm bill legalized hemp production, and 41 other states have already legalized hemp production.

Psychedelics

Oakland Psychedelic Decriminalization Initiative in Planning Stages. A coalition of advocacy groups in hosting a series of meetings in coming months aimed at building support for an initiative to decriminalize not only magic mushrooms but all “entheogenic plants, fungi, and natural sources.” The campaign is called Decriminalize Nature.

Drug Treatment

Incoming Federal Prisoner Sues Over Policy Banning Methadone Treatment. A Massachusetts woman who is about to enter federal prison and will not be permitted to continue methadone treatment for opioid addiction under prison rules has filed a lawsuit against the federal Bureau of Prisons over the policy. Stephanie DiPierro has to do a year for collecting disability benefits and food stamps without reporting income from a job and has been on methadone since 2005.

Massachusetts Bill Would Block Courts from Jailing Defendants in Treatment Who Fail Drug Tests. After the state’s highest court ruled last year that judges could order jail time for defendants who violate probation by using drugs, legislators have responded with S. 397, which would bar judges from incarcerating people who are in treatment and fail mandatory drug tests while on probation. The bill is currently before the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Human Rights

UN Member States, UN Bodies, and Human Rights Groups Launch International Legal Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Policy. A coalition of UN Member States, UN entities and leading human rights experts meeting at the Commission on Narcotic Drugs on Monday launched a landmark set of international legal standards to transform and reshape global responses to the world drug problem. The International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Policy introduces a comprehensive catalogue of human rights standards. They are a guide for governments to develop human rights compliant drug policies, covering the spectrum of cultivation to consumption. Harnessing the universal nature of human rights, the document covers a range of policy areas from development to criminal justice to public health.  

International

Philippines Quits International Criminal Court Over Drug War Investigation. A year after the Philippines told the United Nations it was quitting the world’s only permanent war crimes tribunal because it is investigating human rights abuses in the bloody war on drugs led by President Rodrigo Duterte it has now officially withdrawn from the International Criminal Court. Manila moved to quit after the body launched a preliminary examination in 2018 into President Rodrigo Duterte's drug crackdown that has killed thousands and drawn international censure. However, the ICC said its preliminary investigation into Filipino drug war abuses would continue.

Medical Marijuana Update

Florida is about to get smokable medical marijuana, Earl Blumenauer reintroduces his perennial veterans medical marijuana bill, a New Mexico medical marijuana expansion bill is moving, and more.

National

Earl Blumenauer Reintroduces Veterans Medical Marijuana Bill. Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) is back once again with a bill that would allow doctors at the Veterans Administration to recommend medical marijuana to veterans. HB 1647 is similar to bills that Blumenauer has sponsored for the past several years but were blocked by intransigent House Republican leaders. This year, though, the Democrats control the House.

Arkansas

Arkansas Senate Committee Votes to Restrict Edible and Drinkable Medical Marijuana. The Senate Public Health Committee voted Wednesday to approve SB 440, which was originally written to ban the manufacture or sale of medical marijuana edibles or potables. But the bill as passed by the committee was amended to not ban such products, but to require legislative changes that will mandate a cumbersome regulatory process the industry doesn’t want.

Florida

Florida Senate Approves Bill Allowing Smokable Medical Marijuana. The Senate last Thursday overwhelmingly approved SB 182, which would repeal the legislature's ban on smokable medical marijuana. The effort is being pushed by Gov. Ron DeSantis (R), who has vowed to act if the legislature fails to. The measure now goes to the House, which must approve it by Friday or DeSantis will drop the state's appeal of a lower court ruling ending the ban.

Florida Bill to Allow Smokable Medical Marijuana Heads to Governor’s Desk. With a final vote in the House Wednesday, the legislature has approved SB 182, which repeals a prior legislative ban on smokable medical marijuana. Former Gov. Rick Scott (R) had supported the ban, appealing a lower court decision to end it, but current Gov. Ron DeSantis (R) had urged the legislature to end it, vowing to end the state’s appeal if lawmakers didn’t act by the end of this week.

Kentucky

Kentucky Medical Marijuana Bill Advances. The House Judiciary Committee voted last Wednesday to approve HB 136, which would legalize the use of medical marijuana in the state, but not in its smokable form.

Michigan

Michigan Adds Cerebral Palsy to List of Qualifying Conditions. The Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs announced Monday that it had added cerebral palsy to the list of qualifying conditions to use medical marijuana. It rejected adding chronic aggressive behavior after panel members unanimously recommended denial.

New Mexico

New Mexico Medical Marijuana Access Expansion Bill Passes Senate. The Senate on Monday approved SB 406, which would allow for onsite consumption of medical marijuana at dispensaries, allow people living on Indian land to grow their own, and create civil protections for patients for schooling, child custody, and medical care. A similar bill was vetoed by Gov. Susana Martinez (R) last year, but she’s gone now.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Microdosing Psychedelics "Could Be Beneficial," Study Suggests [FEATURE]

Microdosing -- ingesting very small doses of psychedelic drugs -- has emerged as a popular pastime among Silicon Valley types and harried executives on both coasts, who have claimed anecdotally that it boosts creativity and helps them function more effectively.

A little dab'll do ya. (Creative Commons)
Now, for the first time, comes some hard scientific evidence that microdosing really can be beneficial. In a new, peer-reviewed study in the journal Chemical Neuroscience, researchers at the University of California -- Davis fed small doses of the psychedelics to lab rats and found that microdosing can have positive impacts on mental health.

"This is the first time anyone has demonstrated in animals that psychedelic microdosing might actually have some beneficial effects, particularly for depression or anxiety," David Olson, assistant professor in the UC Davis departments of Chemistry and of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, who led the research team said in a press release.

In the study, the researchers used the powerful hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which they said was appropriate because its "molecular structure is embedded within the structures of popular microdosing drugs such as LSD and psilocybin." Every three days for three weeks, hey gave the rats one-tenth of the dose that would bring on a psychedelic trip. At the end of the three weeks, researchers found that the animals overcame their "fear response" in a test measuring anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and also seemed to be less immobile in a test measuring antidepressant effects.

"Prior to our study, essentially nothing was known about the effects of psychedelic microdosing on animal behaviors," Olson said. "Our study demonstrates that psychedelics can produce beneficial behavioral effects without drastically altering perception, which is a critical step towards producing viable medicines inspired by these compounds."

In other words, you don't have to trip to get the benefits of psychedelics.

It wasn't all good news, though. Researchers found some potential problems: Male rats who microdosed showed significant increases in body weight, while females showed signs of neuronal atrophy.

"It's exciting, but the potentially adverse changes in neuronal structure and metabolism that we observe emphasize the need for additional studies," Olson said. The changes in female neuronal structure were particularly puzzling, he said, because those changes did not occur when female rats took larger doses. That could suggest that acute hallucinogenic doses and repeated microdoses produced different biochemical and structural phenotypes, he said.

The study suggests there is indeed a biochemical basis for some of the positive effects of microdosing reported in less scientifically rigorous studies of humans, such as the study by Canadian researchers who found microdosers scored higher on measures of mental health and well-being.

"We found that microdosers scored higher on measures of wisdom, open-mindedness and creativity," reported researchers Thomas Anderson of the University of Toronto and Rotem Petranker of York University. "Microdosers also scored lower on measures of dysfunctional attitudes and negative emotionality, which is very promising."

That study recruited microdosers from Reddit communities, but did not include trials with placebos, so more research to validate the results is needed, the researchers conceded.

"As promising as they seem, we don't know whether microdosing actually caused any of these differences," they reported. "Maybe people with better mental health were more likely to experiment with microdosing, or perhaps there is some unknown cause that made people both more likely to microdose and to be creative."

But this month's UC-Davis rat study strongly suggests that it is the microdosing -- and not other variables -- that accounts for the difference.

This article was produced by Drug Reporter, a project of the Independent Media Institute.

Drug War Issues

Criminal JusticeAsset Forfeiture, Collateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Court Rulings, Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, 2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, 2016 Drug War Killings, 2017 Drug War Killings, Arrests, Eradication, Informants, Interdiction, Lowest Priority Policies, Police Corruption, Police Raids, Profiling, Search and Seizure, SWAT/Paramilitarization, Task Forces, Undercover Work), Probation or Parole, Prosecution, Reentry/Rehabilitation, Sentencing (Alternatives to Incarceration, Clemency and Pardon, Crack/Powder Cocaine Disparity, Death Penalty, Decriminalization, Defelonization, Drug Free Zones, Mandatory Minimums, Rockefeller Drug Laws, Sentencing Guidelines)CultureArt, Celebrities, Counter-Culture, Music, Poetry/Literature, Television, TheaterDrug UseParaphernalia, ViolenceIntersecting IssuesCollateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Violence, Border, Budgets/Taxes/Economics, Business, Civil Rights, Driving, Economics, Education (College Aid), Employment, Environment, Families, Free Speech, Gun Policy, Human Rights, Immigration, Militarization, Money Laundering, Pregnancy, Privacy (Search and Seizure, Drug Testing), Race, Religion, Science, Sports, Women's IssuesMarijuana PolicyGateway Theory, Hemp, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Marijuana Industry, Medical MarijuanaMedicineMedical Marijuana, Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug Prevention, Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C, Harm Reduction (Methadone & Other Opiate Maintenance, Needle Exchange, Overdose Prevention, Pill Testing, Safer Injection Sites)Source and Transit CountriesAndean Drug War, Coca, Hashish, Mexican Drug War, Opium ProductionSpecific DrugsAlcohol, Ayahuasca, Cocaine (Crack Cocaine), Ecstasy, Heroin, Ibogaine, ketamine, Khat, Kratom, Marijuana (Gateway Theory, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Medical Marijuana, Hashish), Methamphetamine, New Synthetic Drugs (Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Stimulants), Nicotine, Prescription Opiates (Fentanyl, Oxycontin), Psilocybin / Magic Mushrooms, Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, Salvia Divinorum)YouthGrade School, Post-Secondary School, Raves, Secondary School