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Making Matters Worse: DEA's Move to Restrict Opioid Prescriptions Pushed Users to the Dark Web

By the end of 2013, the country's quiet opioid addiction crisis was no longer so quiet. Opioid overdose deaths that year topped 16,000, more than four times the same statistic for 1999. That prompted a number of measures at the state and federal level to rein in opioid prescriptions, including a move by the DEA in October 2014 to tighten its policies around some of the most commonly prescribed opioids.

Dark Web fentanyl sales rose after the DEA restricted some prescription opioids. (Creative Commons)
The new DEA policy -- aimed at popular opioids such as Vicodin and Lortab -- imposed restrictions on doctors' prescribing and made it more difficult for patients to get refills. In one sense, the policy was a success: Prescriptions for those drugs decreased almost immediately. But new research adds to an increasing body of evidence that restricting opioid prescribing has not solved the opioid crisis but instead worsened it.

Since the DEA policy shift, opioid overdose deaths continued to grow with more than 40,000 fatal opioid overdoses in 2016. And while prescription opioid overdose deaths have slightly decreased -- there were about 14,000 that year -- overdose deaths from heroin and non-prescription synthetic opioids such as fentanyl went through the roof. Heroin and illicit synthetics accounted for nearly two-thirds of all opioid overdose deaths in 2016.

In the new study, published this week in the British Medical Journal, researchers examining the impact of the DEA policy shift found evidence that while the change indeed lowered prescribing rates for the opioids in question, it was also linked to an increase in illicit online sales of those drugs in Dark Web drug markets.

The researchers used software called DATACRYPTO to crawl encrypted Dark Web marketplaces where people can anonymously buy damned near anything, from drugs to guns to credit card numbers. DATACRYPTO harvested data on which drugs were for sale, their country of origin, and the number of customer comments on each seller's comments page. Researchers used that last figure as a proxy for how much of a drug that seller sold. They examined sales of prescription opioids, sedatives, stimulants, and steroids, as well as heroin. It was only with prescription opioids that they found a significant Dark Web sales bump.

Here's what they found: "The sale of prescription opioids through US cryptomarkets increased after the schedule change, with no statistically significant changes in sales of prescription sedatives, prescription steroids, prescription stimulants, or illicit opioids."

According to their data, prescription opioids doubled their market share of U.S. Dark Web drug sales thanks to the DEA policy change. By July 2016, opioids represented 13.7% of all drug sales in U.S. cryptomarkets, compared with a modeled estimate of 6.7% of all sales.

While the researchers were careful to not make claims of causation -- only correlation -- their conclusion speaks for itself: "The scheduling change in hydrocodone combination products coincided with a statistically significant, sustained increase in illicit trading of opioids through online US cryptomarkets. These changes were not observed for other drug groups or in other countries. A subsequent move was observed towards the purchase of more potent forms of prescription opioids, particularly oxycodone and fentanyl."

Not only is the DEA policy change linked to increased Dark Web opioid sales, it is also linked to a move toward more powerful, and thus more dangerous, opioids. The researchers noted that while fentanyl was the least purchased Dark Web opioid in the summer of 2014, it was the second most frequently purchased by the summer of 2016. Fentanyl killed as many people as prescription opioids that year.

This study -- one of the few that examines supply reduction (as opposed to demand reduction) as a means reducing drug use -- strongly suggests that supply-side interventions carry unintended consequences, especially the resort to more dangerous and more powerful substitutes. The study's authors refer to this effect as "the iron law of prohibition, whereby interventions to reduce supply, such as increased enforcement and changes to drug scheduling, lead to illicit markets dominated by higher potency products."

Perhaps better than restricting opioid prescriptions, which has deleterious impacts on the tens of millions of Americans suffering chronic pain, or other supply-side interventions, would be increased access to addiction treatment, as well as greatly expanded harm reduction measures to try to get people off opioids and keep them alive in the meantime.

Chronicle AM: SITSA Act Draws Opposition, Congress MedMJ Protections Advance, More... (6/15/18)

The Justice Department is once again likely to be barred from using its funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana, a broad coalition opposes the fast-moving SITSA Act, Portugal's parliament approves medical marijuana products, and more.

Congress is moving once again to bar the Justice Department from spending funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana.
Medical Marijuana

Senate Panel Approves Medical Marijuana Protections. The Senate Appropriations Committee on Thursday approved an amendment that shields legal medical marijuana operations from federal interference. The amendment to the Justice Department appropriations bill bars the department from using its funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana. A similar measure was approved in the House version of the bill.

Maine Supreme Court Rules Workmen's Compensation Doesn't Cover Medical Marijuana. In a ruling Thursday, the state Supreme Court held that employers do not have to pay for medical marijuana under the state's workers' compensation system. In a 5-2 ruling, the court held that federal law takes precedence and that making employers pay for medical marijuana would force them to violate federal law.

Drug Policy

Broad Coalition Opposes SITSA Act. A coalition of human rights, civil liberties, civil rights, religious, and drug policy reform groups have come out strongly in opposition to HR 2851, the Stop Importation and Trafficking of Synthetic Analogues (SITSA) Act of 2017. The fast-moving bill has already passed out of committee and awaits a House floor vote. The bill is an old-school drug war response to new psychoactive substances that relies heavily on the criminal justice system. "If passed, HR 2851 will broadly expand penalties for drug offenses, concentrate power within the Department of Justice, punish people who lack criminal intent, and overcriminalize certain behavior," the groups said in a letter released on Thursday. "The legislation attempts to address the very real problem of synthetic opioid overdoses in the United States, but we believe that its methods are misguided. Instead of punishing people who use drugs and low-level dealers, legislation should focus on expanding treatment opportunities and targeting the international drug trade."

Sentencing

Rhode Island House Passes Law Lengthening Prison Sentences for Dealers Who Sold Drugs in Fatal Overdoses. The House on Thursday approved "Kristen's Law," House Bill 7715, which creates a new crime of drug-related homicide and imposes penalties of up to life in prison for people who sell drugs linked to fatal drug overdoses. The bill now heads to the Senate.

International

Portugal Parliament Approves Marijuana-Based Medicines. The parliament on Friday overwhelmingly approved a bill to allow marijuana-based medicines, but only after earlier rejecting a proposal to allow patients to grow their own medicine. While Portugal decriminalized drug possession in 2001, it has lagged behind the US and other European countries when it comes to medical marijuana. The bill now goes to President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza to be signed into law.

Chronicle AM: Legal Pot Hiccups in California & Uruguay, US Calls Out Bangladesh Drug War Killings, More... (6/14/18)

Two legal marijuana markets are facing some growing pains, the State Department speaks out on Bangladeshi drug war killings, and more.

State Department Spokeswoman Heather Nauert calls out the Bangladeshis on drug war human rights violations. (state.gov)
Marijuana Policy

California Pot Shops Will Have Glut of Cheap Weed, Followed By Possible Shortages. Faced with a July 1 start date for new state-mandated safety standards for marijuana products, marijuana retailers are having to move piles of untested product left over from the state's unregulated grey market before that deadline. That means the likelihood of cheap weed deals in the next couple of weeks, but it also means there is likely to be a shortage of tested product in the early days of the new regime because of a lack of certified testing labs and state-authorized legal market providers.

Hemp

Senate Panel Advances Hemp Legalization. The Senate Agriculture Committee on Wednesday passed the 2018 farm bill. The bill includes hemp legalization legislation backed by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY), who argued in support of the measure during Wednesday's meeting. It now heads for a Senate floor vote.

Foreign Policy

US Expresses Concern Over Bangladesh Drug War Killings. The United States urged Bangladesh to meet its human rights obligations as it expressed concern over reports that more than 21,000 people have been arrested and 147 killed since the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina launched its anti-drug campaign a month ago. "We urge Bangladesh to conduct thorough and transparent investigations into all credible reports of extrajudicial killings," State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said in a statement. "While illegal drugs are a scourge across the world, Bangladesh should ensure its law enforcement respect human rights and that their conduct is consistent with international standards and Bangladesh's own constitution, which includes a presumption of innocence and the right to due process. We look to the Government of Bangladesh to fully meet its human rights obligations," she added. Bangladeshi Home Minister Asaduzzman Khan Kamal brushed the statement aside, insisting that "no extrajudicial killings took place in the ongoing anti-drug drive."

International

Five Years After Legalization, Uruguay Has Marijuana Supply Problems. The country legalized marijuana in 2013, but legal sales only began last year, and the path is still rocky. Pot is supposed to be sold in the nation's pharmacies, but so far, only 14 of about 1,200 have registered to participate, making the black market a more attractive option for some consumers. While Uruguay's law allows individuals to grow for themselves and collectives to grow for their members, the government is in charge of marijuana cultivation for sale at pharmacies, and it has so far licensed only two cultivators. The government sees the problem: "The demand is greater than our productive capacity," said Diego Olivera, head of the Uruguay National Drugs Council. "We have to address that challenge."

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

One of the biggest police corruption cases in recent history ends with the head of the Baltimore Gun Trace Task Force headed for prison, deputies get in trouble for drugs in the jails, an Atlanta cop gets caught up in a drug raid, and more.

In Franklinton, Louisiana, a Washington Parish sheriff's deputy was arrested last Friday for allegedly helping inmates smuggle drugs into the parish jail. Deputy Joe Wayne Sandifer is accused of knowing about drug use by inmate trusties and hiding drugs for them in his department-issued vehicle. Police found drugs when they searched his vehicle. He is charged with possession of marijuana, activities regarding contraband in a penal institution and malfeasance in office.

In Colorado Springs, Colorado, an El Paso County sheriff's deputy was arrested Sunday for trying to bring drugs into the county jail during his shift. Deputy Steven D'Agustino faces charges of introducing contraband in the first degree and official misconduct. The five-year veteran now resides at his former place of employment.

In College Park, Georgia, an Atlanta police officer was arrested Monday during a raid on a home where people were suspected of dealing drugs. Officer Iris Rowe was in the home when College Park Special Operations Teams hit the apartment looking for two named suspects. Police arrested all three and attempted to question Rowe about involvement in drug activity, but she declined to answer questions. Police seized drugs valued at about $30,000 and $8,000 in cash in the house and found more drugs and an AR-15 in the trunk of Rowe's car. She faces three drug charges, including possession with intent to distribute marijuana, possession of a controlled substance and possession of illegal drugs in a drug-free zone. She was placed on leave from the Atlanta Police Department pending the investigation.

In Baltimore, the former head of the Baltimore Police Gun Trace Task Force was sentenced last Thursday to 25 years in federal prison for using the task force, which was supposed to take guns off the street, to steal and resell guns, rob drug dealers, and plant false evidence. Sergeant Wayne Jenkins was among six of his colleagues who pleaded guilty in the case.

Medical Marijuana Update

Regulators in Michigan and Ohio slow things down, the New York Assembly approves medical marijuana for opioid addiction, and more.

Michigan

Michigan Regulators Leave Medical Marijuana Companies Hanging for Another Month. The state Medical Marijuana Licensing Board announced last Friday that it was canceling its meeting set for Monday, leaving 17 medical marijuana companies in the lurch. The board will not meet again for another month. It was supposed to issue permits to four cultivation operations, a transport company, a dispensary and a processor, and it was also scheduled to consider prequalification for licensure for another 10 businesses. So far, 212 businesses have applied for licenses; none have been issued.

New York

New York Assembly Approves Medical Marijuana for Opioid Addiction. The Assembly last Wednesday overwhelmingly approved a bill that would let medical marijuana be used to treat opioid addiction. The bill is A 9016. A Senate companion measure has been stuck in the Health Committee since January.

Ohio

Ohio Medical Marijuana Sales Delayed. The state Department of Commerce announced last Wednesday that patients would not be able to buy medical marijuana on September 8, the anticipated start date for the program. Sales may not begin for weeks after that, and supply is likely to be initially limited.

South Carolina

South Carolina Voters Approve Medical Marijuana Question on Democratic Ballot. Voters in the state's Democratic primary Tuesday overwhelmingly approved a non-binding question asking if they supported passing a law to allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to patients. The question passed with 81% of the vote. While medical marijuana bills have moved in the legislature, none has yet passed.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Chronicle AM: St. Louis Ends Small MJ Prosecutions, House Passes Opioid Package, More... (6/13/18)

St. Louis prosecutors will no longer go after people with less than 100 grams of marijuana, a Delaware legislator amends her legalization bill to address concerns, the House passes an opioid package, the Canadian federal government rejects some Senate marijuana amendments, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Delaware Legalization Bill Amended. State Rep. Helene Keeley (D-Wilmington) has filed an amendment to her legalization bill, House Bill 110, aimed at addressing concerns around regulations and public safety. The amendment would more tightly regulate legal marijuana production and distribution and prohibit products that look like candy or cartoon characters. The amendment also clarifies employer protections and sets aside 10% of tax revenues to pay for drugged driving enforcement. The bill has already passed committee votes and now awaits a House floor vote.

St. Louis Ends Marijuana Prosecutions for Less Than 100 Grams. St. Louis Circuit Attorney Kim Gardner announced Tuesday that her office will stop prosecuting marijuana possession cases involving less than 3 ½ ounces (100 grams) of the weed. "Effective immediately we will no longer issue possession of marijuana cases under 100 grams as the lead charge!" Gardner wrote. Gardner said her staff would also begin reviewing and dismissing pending pot cases.

Medical Marijuana

South Carolina Voters Approve Medical Marijuana Question On Democratic Ballot. Voters in the state's Democratic primary overwhelmingly approved a non-binding question asking if they supported passing a law to allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to patients. The question passed with 81% of the vote. While medical marijuana bills have moved in the legislature, none has yet passed.

Heroin and Prescription Opioids

House Passes Package of 25 Bills Addressing Opioid Crisis. The House on Tuesday approved a package of 25 bills that nibble at the edge of the nation's opioid-related public health crisis. The bills range from addressing the disposal of opioid medications after a patient's death to encouraging overdose awareness in hospital emergency rooms to raising awareness of synthetic opioids and more. For a complete list of the bills and what they do, click on the title link.

Harm Reduction

Delaware Law Giving First Responders Immunity from Lawsuits for Administering Opioid Overdose Reversal Drug Goes into Effect. Gov. John Carney (D) on Tuesday signed into law Senate Bill 147, which provides immunity from lawsuits for public safety personnel for trying to save lives by administering Naloxone. Paramedics and police had previously been granted immunity, and laypersons also have immunity under the state's Good Samaritan law. This bill specifies that volunteer firefighters and other emergency responders will also have immunity.

International

Canadian Federal Government Rejects Some Senate Marijuana Legalization Bill Amendments. The federal government has said it accepts some 26 technical proposed amendments to the C-45 legalization bill but rejects amendments to allow provinces to bar home cultivation and prohibit producers from handing out branded merchandise. "We have looked carefully at all of the amendments that have been brought forward and today we respectfully submit to the Senate the amendments that we've accepted, and the ones that we haven't," Health Minister Ginette Petitpas Taylor told reporters Wednesday. Now, it will be up to the Senate to accept the government's position. If not, the legislative haggling could continue for some time.

Chronicle AM: STATES Act Gets New Backers, Federal Hemp Bill to Be Debated, More... (6/12/18)

The week-old STATES Act picks up a pair of new cosponsors, Mitch McConnell's hemp bill will be debated on Wednesday, Mexican human rights group ask the ICC to investigate drug war crimes by the military, and more.

hemp fields (votehemp.com)
Marijuana Policy

Alaska Senators Sign Up to Back STATES Act. Alaska US senators Dan Sullivan (R) and Lisa Murkowski (R) have added their names as cosponsors of the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act), which was introduced last week. The bill would make the marijuana prohibition provisions of the Controlled Substances Act inapplicable in states that have their own laws allowing the production, sale, possession, and consumption of marijuana.

Hemp

Federal Bill to Legalize Hemp Up for Debate on Wednesday. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell's (R-KY) Hemp Farming Act of 2018 (S. 2667) will be debated in the Senate on Wednesday. The bill legalizes industrial hemp production and removes hemp from the Controlled Substances Act.

International

Mexican Human Rights Groups Call for International Criminal Court Investigation of Military Drug War Atrocities. Human rights organizations called Monday for the International Criminal Court (ICC) to investigate abuses committed by the Mexican military in a crackdown on drug crime in Chihuahua state. The rights groups provided a dossier to the ICC documenting slayings, torture, rapes, and forced disappearances involving at least 121 victims during a period between 2008 and 2010. This is the third case the human rights groups have asked the ICC to open. Earlier, they presented cases from Coahuila and Baja California, but the ICC has yet to open a preliminary investigation on any of them.

Australia NSW Festival Drug Dog Policy Challenged. A new policy by New South Wales policy that denies entry to music festivals to anyone "indicated on" by a drug dog -- even if a search reveals no drugs -- is being challenged by the NSW Greens. The Greens's Sniff Off campaign sought an injunction last Friday in the NSW Supreme Court to try to block police from carrying out the new practice. The court rejected that effort, saying the issue was "hypothetical," but now, after some festival goers were denied entry this past weekend, the Greens plan to challenge the policy anew.

Chronicle AM: Mayors, Governors Call for Protecting Marijuana Legalization, MI MedMJ Delays, More... (6/11/18)

A dozen state governors call on Congress to protect legal marijuana states, a coalition of mayors does something similar, Michigan regulators are leaving medical marijuana businesses hanging out to dry, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Governors Call on Congress to Pass STATES Act. A dozen governors have signed a letter to Congress urging it to pass the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act). Introduced in both the House and the Senate last week, the bill would protect states with legalized marijuana from federal interference. The list includes the governors of most of the adult legalization states-- California, Oregon, Colorado, Alaska, Nevada, Washington and Massachusetts -- as well as Democratic governors Phil Murphy of New Jersey, Andrew Cuomo of New York and Tom Wolfe of Pennsylvania, as well as Republican governors Larry Hogan of Maryland and, somewhat surprisingly, Doug Burgum of North Dakota.

Coalition of Mayors to Urge Congress to Protect States With Legal Marijuana. Denver Mayor Michael Hancock (D) announced Sunday at the annual meeting of the US Conference of Mayors that he will lead a coalition of mayors from around the country in a bid to push Congress to act to protect states where marijuana or medical marijuana is legal. "With 46 states having some form of legalization, the reality is legal marijuana is coming to a city near you. As mayors of cities that have successfully implemented and managed this new industry, we have hands-on experience that can help Congress take the right steps to support other local governments as they prepare to enter this new frontier," Hancock said in an announcement of the coalition. "We all will face common challenges when it comes to legalizing marijuana, and those challenges need federal solutions so implementation can be done smoothly, safely and effectively." Other founding members of the coalition are Mayor Heidi Williams of Thornton, Colorado, as well as mayors Mark Farrell (San Francisco), Jenny Durkan (Seattle), Libby Schaaf (Oakland), Tedd Wheeler (Portland), Christopher Cabaldon (West Sacramento), Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) and Carolyn Goodman (Las Vegas).

Medical Marijuana

Michigan Regulators Leave Medical Marijuana Companies Hanging for Another Month. The state Medical Marijuana Licensing Board announced last Friday that it was canceling its meeting set for Monday, leaving 17 medical marijuana companies in the lurch. The board will not meet again for another month. It was supposed to issue permits to four cultivation operations, a transport company, a dispensary and a processor, and it was also scheduled to consider prequalification for licensure for another 10 businesses. So far, 212 businesses have applied for licenses; none have been issued.

International

Danish Political Parties Call for Legal Marijuana Sales. Amidst another police crackdown on the Pusher Street market in Copenhagen's Christiania, five political parties are calling for a path toward legalization. One of the parties, the libertarian Liberal Alliance, is a coalition partner in the country's conservative government. The other four -- Alternative, the Red Green Alliance, the Socialist People's Party, and the Social Liberal Party -- are in the opposition. The parties were set to meet Monday to discuss pathways to legalization.

Chronicle AM: Trump Signals Support for MJ Bill, Canada Senate Passes Legalization, More... (6/8/18)

Trump says he will likely support a bill to protect legal marijuana states, Canada's Senate approves marijuana legalization, Minneapolis ends low-level pot stings, and more.

President Trump said he would "probably" support a bill that would end federal marijuanaprohibition in states where it is legal.
Marijuana Policy

Trump Says He Will Likely Support Gardner-Warren Marijuana Bill. President Trump said Friday that he will "probably" support a bipartisan, bicameral bill filed Thursday by Sens. Cory Gardner (R-CO) and Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) and Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and David Joyce (R-OH) that would end federal marijuana prohibition in states where it is legal. The measure is the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act). "I support Sen. Gardner," Trump said when asked about the bill. "I know exactly what he's doing. We're looking at it. But I probably will end up supporting that, yes."

New Jersey Democrats File New Marijuana Legalization Bill. State Senate President Steve Sweeney (D) and state Sen. Nick Scutari (D) have filed a new marijuana legalization bill just weeks ahead of June 30 budget deadline. Gov. Phil Murphy, a legalization supporter, is counting on $60 billion in marijuana tax revenue in his fiscal year 2019 budget. Under the bill, adults could possess, buy, use or transport an ounce or less of marijuana. Towns would retain the right to create their own ordinances governing sales, with a 180-day window to bar sales. The bill envisages tax rates from 10% to 25% over four years. It's not yet available on the legislative website.

Minneapolis Ends Low-Level Pot Stings, Cites Racial Disparities. At the request of Mayor Jacob Frey (DFL), Minneapolis police will quit staging stings targeting low-level marijuana sellers. The move came just hours after revelations that 46 of 47 people arrested in the stings were black. The charges against those people are being dismissed. "I believe strongly that marijuana should be a lowest-level enforcement priority and that it should be fully legalized at the state level," Frey said in a statement Thursday. "The fact that racial disparities are so common nationwide in the enforcement of marijuana laws is one of the reasons I support full legalization."

Heroin and Prescription Opioids

West Virginia Opioid Reduction Act Now in Effect. As of Thursday, the state Department of Health and Human Resources has begun implementation of the Opioid Reduction Act. It sets limitations on opioid prescriptions and allows patients to place a directive in their medical file declining in advance treatments involving opioid medications. Under the new law, initial opioid prescriptions are limited to a seven-day supply of the lowest effective dose. In hospital emergency rooms, doctors can only prescribe a four-day supply.

International

Canadian Senate Approves Marijuana Legalization Bill. The Senate Thursday night approved the C-45 marijuana legalization bill, but only after heavily amending it. The bill must now go back to the House, which must decide which to keep and which to throw out, before sending it back to the Senate for final approval. Many of the amendments are technical, but some are significant. One amendment would allow provinces to prohibit home cultivation of cannabis if they so choose, rather than accept the four marijuana plants per household allowed under the bill. Another would impose stringent restrictions on advertising by marijuana companies.

Chronicle AM: Federal Legal Marijuana Bill Filed, OH MedMJ Sales Delayed, More... (6/7/18)

A bipartisan bill that would make marijuana federally legal in states that have legalized it has been filed, a key GOP committee chair blocks votes on marijuana amendments, the New York Assembly approves medical marijuana for opioid addiction and sealing past pot convictions, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Cory Gardner, Elizabeth Warren File Bill to Make Marijuana Federally Legal in Legal Marijuana States. Two legal marijuana state US senators, Cory Gardner (R-CO) and Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) on Thursday filed a bill that would federally legalize marijuana in states that have legalized it. Marijuana would remain federally illegal in those states that have not legalized it. The bill, which does not yet have a number, is the STATES Act (Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States).

House Rules Committee Blocks Votes on Marijuana Policy. One of the biggest roadblocks to drug law reform in Congress has struck again. Rep. Pete Sessions (R-TX), chairman of the House Rules Committee, blocked four marijuana amendments from going to a House floor vote. Three of them related to veterans' ability to use medical marijuana, while the fourth was about water rights for marijuana and hemp growers.

New York Assembly Approves Sealing Marijuana Convictions. The Assembly on Wednesday approved A 2142, which would seal marijuana convictions for individuals who have been unjustly and unconstitutionally arrested for simple possession of marijuana in public view. Over the past 20 years, more than 800,000 New Yorkers have been arrested on such charges. A Senate companion measure has passed out of the Codes Committee and is currently before the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Medical Marijuana

New York Assembly Approves Medical Marijuana for Opioid Addiction. The Assembly on Wednesday overwhelmingly approved a bill that would let medical marijuana be used to treat opioid addiction. The bill is A 9016. A Senate companion measure has been stuck in the Health Committee since January.

Ohio Medical Marijuana Sales Delayed. The state Department of Commerce announced Wednesday that patients would not be able to buy medical marijuana on September 8, the anticipated start date for the program. Sales may not begin for weeks after that, and supply is likely to be initially limited.

International

Canada Senate Set to Pass Marijuana Legalization Bill Today. The Canadian Senate was expected to give final approval to the C-45 marijuana legalization bill Thursday. Because the bill has been heavily amended in the Senate, it will have to go back to the House for approval of those changes. After that, the implementation of marijuana legalization will begin.

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