Overdoses

RSS Feed for this category

Deadly Heroin Overdoses Could Soar With Surge in Afghan Opium Production, UN Warns

Location: 
Afghanistan
Publication/Source: 
UN Office on Drugs and Crime
URL: 
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=20140&Cr=Afghan&Cr1=UNDOC

Detroit Deaths From Fentanyl-Laced Heroin Could Be Reduced By Medical Treatment

Press Release Source: Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. Detroit Deaths from Fentanyl-Laced Heroin Overdoses Could Be Reduced by Medical Treatment Tuesday October 3, 7:30 am ET Physician training sessions will increase patient access to medical office-based treatment for opioid addiction DETROIT, Oct. 3 /PRNewswire/ -- A recent string of opioid overdoses and deaths in Detroit and elsewhere in Wayne County highlights the devastation of a dangerous new illegal drug mixture: the combination of heroin with fentanyl, a powerful opioid painkiller used in anesthesia and to treat cancer pain. According to the Medical Examiner's office, so far there have been at least 122 fatal overdoses in the Detroit area attributable to heroin laced with fentanyl, while several times this many have occurred nationwide. ADVERTISEMENT "Fentanyl-related overdoses in the Detroit area serve as a tragic reminder that there is a need for better patient access to aggressive and effective medical treatment for opioid addiction," said Mark Menestrina, MD, addiction medicine physician at Brighton Hospital. "Opioid addiction is a chronic disease that can afflict anyone and needs to be treated much like we treat other chronic conditions. Medical treatment is oftentimes prescribed in the privacy of a doctor's office, creating a confidential, convenient, and respectful atmosphere. Currently, there are not enough certified doctors in Detroit available to handle the increasing number of people seeking help for opioid addiction. It is critical that office-based medical treatment become more widely available in order to contain this crisis and prevent more deaths throughout the greater metropolitan Detroit area." Addiction to opioids, which includes heroin as well as the prescription painkillers oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and morphine, is a growing public health problem that affects people from all walks of life. In Michigan, misuse of prescription opioid painkillers continues to be a major problem and, in Detroit, heroin remains widely available, according to a report by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). And as evidenced by the current surge in fentanyl-heroin use, drug dealers are targeting this mixture in the Detroit area. The recent problems in Detroit and throughout Michigan reflect a national public health crisis -- according to the most recent National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006), published last month by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), approximately 4.7 million people currently misuse prescription pain relievers, second only to marijuana use. Among young adults, nonmedical use of prescription drugs increased from 5.4 percent in 2002 to 6.3 percent in 2005. In addition, in terms of new users, in 2005 more people 12 years and older -- 2.2 million -- misused opioid painkillers for the first time than any other drug, including marijuana and cocaine. Many people do not fully understand the danger of misusing opioid painkillers such as fentanyl. A recent national survey on the public's perceptions of opioid addiction, Prescription Painkiller/Heroin Addiction and Treatment, revealed that nearly half of the U.S. public does not know that misusing prescription opioid painkillers is as harmful to the body, and fully as addictive, as heroin abuse. Physician Certification Training Available at Sessions and Online Any doctor may become certified to treat opioid dependence in his or her private office using an FDA-approved medicine called buprenorphine. Many patients prefer the privacy, convenience, and discretion that office-based treatment offers. According to Dr. Menestrina, access to buprenorphine treatment for patients addicted to opioids is vital to reduce the number of deaths due to drug overdoses. Doctors will find information about becoming certified to treat with buprenorphine at http://www.docoptin.com. Additionally, information about online and CD-ROM training options may be obtained from 1-877-782-6966. "An increase in the number of doctors certified to treat opioid addiction is an important step in the fight against the problem we're facing in Detroit," said Dr. Menestrina. "It is unfortunate that patients seeking buprenorphine treatment are turned away simply because not enough doctors are certified to prescribe this medication. This is especially upsetting considering the great success I have seen in my practice with buprenorphine. I strongly urge other physicians to learn about this treatment option and seriously consider becoming certified to treat the exceedingly high number of chemically dependent individuals in the Detroit area." Resources for Opioid Dependence and Its Treatment Addiction to opioids is defined as a long-term brain disease by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). It is a treatable medical condition that is caused by changes in the chemistry of the brain. This dependence can start with use of medicine that a doctor prescribes for serious pain but that a person continues to use after the medical need for pain relief has passed. Or it may begin as recreational drug use that spins out of control. Individuals who need more information about opioid dependence and its treatment, either for themselves or for someone they are concerned about, have several options. Educational materials on opioid dependence are available to answer questions about this often-misunderstood disease and the treatments that are available for it. To receive a free educational Resource Kit on these topics, visit http://www.turntohelp.com or call 1-866-455-TURN, both provided by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the non-profit patient advocacy group NAABT -- National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment -- is dedicated to helping educate the public on opioid dependence and treatment in a private doctor's office. NAABT now offers a nationwide confidential matching service to pair individuals seeking buprenorphine treatment with available doctors. "Increasingly more people are contacting NAABT for information on opioid dependence and treatment and for help finding doctors who can prescribe buprenorphine," said Timothy Lepak, president of NAABT. "This is a disease that does not discriminate. It affects people from all walks of life and all socioeconomic and demographic levels." For more information on Detroit-area physicians who can prescribe medicine to treat opioid dependence in a private medical office, visit http://naabt.org. SAMHSA's Web site also provides a physician locator and other valuable information at http://buprenorphine.samhsa.gov. In the United States, buprenorphine is marketed as Suboxone® (buprenorphine HCl/naloxone HCl dihydrate) C-III Sublingual Tablets and Subutex® (buprenorphine HCl) C-III Sublingual Tablets, the only controlled medications under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 approved by the FDA for treatment of opioid dependence in a doctor's office. Suboxone and Subutex are manufactured by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals. About Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a specialty pharmaceutical company that manufactures and markets Suboxone® (buprenorphine HCl/naloxone HCl dihydrate [2 mg/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg]) C-III Sublingual Tablets and Subutex® (buprenorphine HCl [2 mg and 8 mg]) C-III Sublingual Tablets, formulations of buprenorphine used to treat opioid dependence. Suboxone and Subutex are the only controlled medications under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 approved by the FDA for office-based treatment of opioid dependence. Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. is committed to expanding access to medical therapies for patients suffering from the chronic, relapsing brain disease of opioid dependence. For more information, visit http://www.suboxone.com or http://www.opioiddependence.com. Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Reckitt Benckiser PLC, a publicly traded UK firm. Important Safety Information Intravenous use of buprenorphine, usually in combination with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants has been associated with significant respiratory depression and death. Suboxone® and Subutex® have potential for abuse and produces dependence of the opioid type with a milder withdrawal syndrome than full agonists. Cytolytic hepatitis and hepatitis with jaundice have been observed in the addicted population receiving buprenorphine. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Suboxone or Subutex (a pregnancy category C medication) in pregnancy. Due caution should be exercised when driving cars or operating machinery. The most commonly reported adverse events with Suboxone have included headache (36%, placebo 22%), withdrawal syndrome (25%, placebo 37%), pain (22%, placebo 19%), nausea (15%, placebo 11%), insomnia (14%, placebo 16%), sweating (14%, placebo 10%). See full prescribing information for complete information. Suboxone and Subutex are registered trademarks of Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. Media Contact: Cory Tromblee 617-761-6715 [email protected]
Location: 
Detroit, MI
United States

Welcome to the New Drug Scare of 2007

Location: 
United States
Publication/Source: 
Stats
URL: 
http://www.stats.org/stories/welcome_drug_2007_sept27_06.htm

Report from the National New Democratic Party Convention in Quebec

Report from DANA LARSEN President, eNDProhibition The unofficial anti-prohibition wing of Canada's NDP. http://www.endprohibition.ca MY EXPERIENCES AT THE NDP CONVENTION I came to the federal NDP Convention in Quebec, to promote our organization, eNDProhibition, NDP against the drug war. We had a group of 8 delegates who came to the convention specifically to support eNDProhibition, work our two tables and promote our marijuana and drug policy resolutions. Preparing for the convention had been frustrating. I had intended on buying a full-page ad in the convention guide, but no-one ever responded to the ad purchase form I Xpressposted to their office, nor the many phone messages and emails I left over a six-week period. However, they did get back to me about the two tables for us to promote our group, and when we got to the convention we did indeed have the promised space reserved for us. The display tables were in a smaller room away from the main convention hall, and when it turned out that we needed more electrical outlets the fellow came promptly and installed them very quickly and professionally. RESOLUTIONS AND DEBATES A key to any convention is the priority given to the resolutions. Every convention receives hundreds of resolutions, and there will only be time to actually debate and confirm the party's official support for a very small fraction of the total. So if you have a resolution you want passed, you want it to be within the top 5 in its category. This was the first federal convention to use a new method for dealing with resolutions, the "Saskatchewan Method" as it originated in that province. I think that previous conventions used the same method currently employed by the NDP in BC and some other provinces. That method is to have a committee sort through all the resolutions and then put them into a priority list. The list can be appealed but the committee has the final say in priorities. The new method at this convention was for a central committee to sort all resolutions into one of six categories, and then prioritize them within each category. Near the start of the convention, delegates can pick one of six simulatenous meetings, where they can vote on reorganizing the order of resolutions, and also amending them. There were two resolutions which our group was promoting, one calling for the NDP to introduce legislation calling for non-punitive marijuana policies, the other calling for expansion of the safe injection site program into any communities that wanted one. Our marijuana resolution had been passed by four riding associations, and three other different marijuana resolutions were passed by other groups. One of those was written by Libby Davies, and was a good resolution but not quite as strident as the others. All of the marijuana resolutions were clustered near the bottom of their category, except for the one written by Davies, which was placed at a reasonable 13. Not high enough to likely get debated, but good for a list of 95 resolutions. The safe injection site resolution had been placed in a different category, and given a priority in the 30s. I was surprised as it is a current issue and seems to have broad public support. We decided to focus our efforts on Libby Davies' pot resolution, hoping to amend it to make it a little stronger, and bump it up the list. But despite our best efforts we didn't succeed. Our motion to bump it up to number 5 was spoken against by MP Charlie Angus, who just said it shouldn't be a priority at this time. The motion to prioritize it to #5 was defeated by roughly 65%. We tried some other maneouvers to get something on harm reduction into an omnibus justice bill already at #5, but time for debate on that item ended just as I was about to speak. Although I wanted to get our resolution a higher priority, and I was annoyed by Charlie Angus' comment about it not being an important issue, something else happened during the meeting that was much worse, and which seemed like an organized subversion of the process. BLOCK VOTING Our policy section included other justice and human rights issues, including some resolutions on LGBT equality, and some opposing the changes to the age of consent law which have been proposed by the Conservatives. I figured that opposing change to the age of consent laws was a no-brainer and would pass easily. But when this item came up for debate and amendment, I looked behind me and saw a big crowd of people standing in the back of the room. A motion was made to "table" the resolution, which means sending it back to another committe for further analysis. This is one way of killing a resolution and also avoiding public debate on it. The motion to table carried, and then the big voting block left the room. Many people in the room were verbally and visibily pissed about this. These folks had apparently organized themselves and had entered a few debate rooms at key momments, to vote as a block on key issues. Delegates were supposed to pick one of the six rooms and stick to that section, but apparently these folks liked to bend the rules. An LGBT equality resolution came up next, and I tried to get them to slip in the conclusion of another resolution opposing change to the age of consent laws, but my amendment was ruled out of order. Svend Robinson spoke and got at least an amendment calling for the age of consent to be the same for both hetero and homosexual acts. So anyways, these sorts of shenanigans didn't impress me, although I did learn from them what it takes to get a resolution through, and how to block any you don't like. However, much of this maneouvering was academic anyways, as when it came time for the entire convention to debate the various policy sections which had been prioritized the day before, not much time was allowed and only the top 3-4 resolutions in each section got debated. So even if we had gotten our marijuana resolution bumped to #5 it still wouldn't have made the floor for debate. SAFE INJECTION SITE RESOLUTION PASSES We did get one resolution passed. Libby Davies pushed for a resolution supporting the safe injection site to get into the "emergency resolutions" section which get debated on the last day of convention. This resolution was listed as #6 of six resolutions, but we managed to speed through the other five and we got our resolution passed. So now the federal NDP has an official policy calling for Vancouver's safe injection site program to be continued, and for other safe injection sites to be created in any other communities that want one. RUNNING FOR PREZ John Shavluk, delegate for Delta North, is a passionate member of our group and he was disappointed that our resolution didn't get to the floor. He decided to run for a pair of positions in the party so he could take the opportunity to draw attention to the importance of our issue. Shavluk ran for BC Provincial Council rep, and also President of the NDP. In both cases he was running against a single opponent who had broad support. I only caught one of his two speeches, but he did a good job and used his three minutes to explain that marijuana and prohibition were important issues which the NDP should support. He didn't win either post of course, but he did a nice job and I think delegates respected his position. MEETING AND GREETING In terms of meeting people, handing out our information, networking and building grassroots support, the convention was a success. We gave out about 800 buttons, hundreds of copies of our newsletter, a big stack of LEAP DVDs, dozens of copies of Drug War Facts, and a batch of BC Civil Liberties Association flyers. We also met some enthusiastic people who agreed to start eNDProhibition chapters in their provinces. In the next issue of the End Prohibition News we'll be listing contact info for our Directors in seven provinces: BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. I spoke briefly with both Stephen Lewis and Jack Layton. Lewis agreed to let me interview him for a future issue of End Prohibition News, and Layton told our group that he had supported our cause since 1973, and to keep up the good work. We missed the big party on Saturday night, jetlag and early mornings caught up with most of our crew. But on Friday night we had a great time smoking up everyone in the outdoor backroom of the NDP party bar. We blazed three massive bombers and endless bowls of BC hash, until a waiter finally asked if we could move the toking outside. So all in all I'm glad that we were at the convention, and although our marijuana resolution joined the other 98% of resolutions which didn't get debated, we did garner a great deal of support for our cause. We met many like-minded people across Canada who share our goals, and we learned a great deal about how the convention process works, and what tactics would work best in the future. Over the next few months, I will be attending more NDP conventions across Canada on behalf of eNDProhibition. I will be at the Ontario Young New Democrat convention in October, the Saskatchewan NDP convention in November, the Ontario NDP convention in January, and I think the Manitoba NDP has a convention scheduled for March. At all these events I will be working with others to educate NDP delegates on the importance of these issues, and to pass resolutions against the drug war. -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - DANA LARSEN President, eNDProhibition The unofficial anti-prohibition wing of Canada's NDP. http://www.endprohibition.ca
Location: 
Quebec, QC
Canada

A Question for Dr. Volkow

Drug warriors don’t answer phone calls or emails from the likes of us, so the only way to ask them questions is to show up when they’re speaking publicly and hope to get called on during Q&A. Sitting in the moderator’s line of sight helps, as does not looking like a balls-to-the-wall hippie drug-legalizer (not that there’s anything wrong with that).

And so this past Friday I attended the “African American Brain Trust on Eliminating Racial Disparities in Substance Abuse Policies” sponsored by the National African American Drug Policy Coalition, for the dual purposes of developing contacts for an unrelated project, and hopefully to get some answers from NIDA Director Dr. Nora Volkow who would be presenting. NAADPC assembled an impressive list of speakers, and though the event was neutral in tone, it’s probably safe to say that if NAADPC replaced ONDCP, there'd be less to blog about. The audience consisted primarily of criminal justice and medical professionals, but the full anti-prohibitionist viewpoint was represented by ubiquitous reformers Kymone Freeman and Howard Wooldridge of LEAP. True to form, both asked about legalization, which prompted squirmy but less-than-dismissive responses from panels of distinguished judges, prosecutors, and law-enforcement professionals.

A neutral, non-politicized discussion of the drug problem inevitably favors the compassionate activist over the status quo, but the final word of the day from Dr. Nora Volkow provided a startling reality check. Dr. Volkow’s power-point presentation titled “Using Science and Medicine to Effectively Treat Drug Addiction” conjured a distopian future in which “addicts” are administered government drugs by force in order to prevent them from enjoying the drugs they take voluntarily. But she didn’t phrase it that way.

Dr. Volkow argues that prolonged drug use alters the brain in ways that reduce the user’s control over drug-taking itself, thereby necessitating compulsory treatment in order to help the user regain the ability to make his/her own decisions. Addiction is a disease, yes, but drugs themselves cause the disease over time, according to Dr. Volkow. By this logic, intervention appears justified at any stage.

With time running short, I was fortunate to be one of three people chosen to ask questions. Mine came out something like this:

I hope that by looking at drug addiction as a disease, society will become less inclined to stigmatize people with drug problems. But there’s a flipside in that most people who use drugs are doing just fine. I know that most people in treatment for marijuana were coerced into it by the criminal justice system, for example. As your research progresses, will you still acknowledge that most drug users don’t fit into the addiction model you just described?

Dr. Volkow was answering before I was done asking, and her answer was clever. She admitted that many drug users don’t experience negative consequences. “We’ve always acknowledged that” she said, as if I was kind of stupid for asking. “But it’s important to realize,” she went on, “that even experimentation with drugs can have dire consequences.”

It’s pathetic that after a forty-five minute presentation on addiction science, she would resort to such an unscientific generalization. Yes, experimentation can have consequences, but as Jack Herer once said, “nobody’s ever died from marijuana that wasn’t shot by a cop.” Too often, the consequences of drug use take the form of government persecution justified by junk science from prohibitionists masquerading as public health experts.

Dr. Nora Volkow says we shouldn’t stigmatize drug-users, but then she goes around diagnosing them with a brain-rotting disease that most of them don’t actually have.

Location: 
United States

Canadian Federal Government Demands More Research on Safe Injection Site, But Won't Pay For It

The Canadian federal government -- relatively hostile to harm reduction measures like safe injection sites since the Conservative Party took power in the last elections -- will not fund further research for Vancouver's InSite safe injection site, Health Ministry spokesman Eric Waddell told the Drug War Chronicle this afternoon. That was news to the site's operator, the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority, whose spokesperson Viviana Zonacco said she had not been informed of that aspect of the ministry's decision.

The Health Ministry had funded research on the injection site's efficacy for the past three years to the tune of $500,000 a year. The ministry extended the site's exemption from the country's drug laws for only year instead of three years last Friday—the dead news day before the three-day weekend in Canada—saying that it required further research on how well it worked. But after demanding more research, the Health Ministry doesn't want to pay for it. Go figger.

I learned about this as I was researching an article I will write about the decision for this week's Chronicle. Check it out on Friday.

Location: 
Vancouver, BC
Canada

Drug Users Go to Court to Keep Safe Injection Site Open

Press Release – For Immediate Release, August 31, 2006 Drug Users go to Court to keep Safe Injection Site Open Vancouver – The Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) will seek an injunction in BC Supreme Court to prevent the federal government from closing Insite, North America’s first safe injection site. Scientific research in the world’s leading medical journals has established Insite as a success in reducing the harms associated with injection drug use in Canada’s poorest neighbourhood. Despite widespread support however, the Conservative government has refused to confirm that they will renew the permit for the site, due to expire September 12, 2006. A press conference providing details of the lawsuit and injunction application will be held: Friday, September 1, 2006 1pm to 2pm Carnegie Centre Auditorium 410 Main Street, Vancouver VANDU is represented by John Conroy, Q.C., a director of Pivot Legal Society and a well-known senior member of the Bar. ------------------------------------------------------- About Pivot Legal Society Pivot’s mandate is to take a strategic approach to social change, using the law to address the root causes that undermine the quality of life of those most on the margins. We believe that everyone, regardless of income, benefits from a healthy and inclusive community where values such opportunity, respect and equality are strongly rooted in the law.
Location: 
Vancouver, BC
Canada

UK Drug Deaths on the Rise, Despite Government Pledge

Location: 
United Kingdom
Publication/Source: 
The Independent
URL: 
http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article1222808.ece

Surge in Heroin Deaths Leads Families of Victims to Speak Out

Location: 
St. Louis, MO
United States
Publication/Source: 
KSDK News Channel 5
URL: 
http://www.ksdk.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=102639

Harm Reduction: Boston About to Move to Supply Addicts with Heroin Antidote

Boston public health authorities will likely approve a trial program providing heroin users with naloxone (brand name Narcan) next week, the Boston Globe reported Wednesday. If the Boston Public Health Commission indeed approves the program, it will join cities such as Baltimore, Chicago, and New York where authorities have already approved its distribution to drug users.

https://stopthedrugwar.org/files/naloxone.jpg
In many locales, only paramedics or hospital emergency rooms administer the drug, which can stop a heroin overdose from turning into an overdose death. But with Boston facing a high number of heroin overdose deaths -- fatal overdoses increased 50% between 1999 and 2003 -- city health officials want to put the drug where it can do the most good most quickly: in the hands of drug users.

"The number one hope with this is to save lives," Public Health Commission executive director Joel Auerbach told the Globe. "Our paramedics have said it's a miracle drug. They've seen people who are comatose who are then revived and perfectly fine."

The trial run is expected to enroll 100 heroin users, who would have to undergo training and evaluation, as well as listen to encouragements to quit. But if they were not prepared to stop using, they would be instructed in how to administer Narcan. Then they would be given a prescription for two doses.

The proposed move comes just a week after the Office of National Drug Control Policy -- the drug czar's office -- rejected the idea as somehow encouraging drug use. "We don't want to send the message out that there is a safe way to use heroin," ONDCP spokesperson Jennifer DeVallance told the AP.

Drug War Issues

Criminal JusticeAsset Forfeiture, Collateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Court Rulings, Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, 2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, 2016 Drug War Killings, 2017 Drug War Killings, Arrests, Eradication, Informants, Interdiction, Lowest Priority Policies, Police Corruption, Police Raids, Profiling, Search and Seizure, SWAT/Paramilitarization, Task Forces, Undercover Work), Probation or Parole, Prosecution, Reentry/Rehabilitation, Sentencing (Alternatives to Incarceration, Clemency and Pardon, Crack/Powder Cocaine Disparity, Death Penalty, Decriminalization, Defelonization, Drug Free Zones, Mandatory Minimums, Rockefeller Drug Laws, Sentencing Guidelines)CultureArt, Celebrities, Counter-Culture, Music, Poetry/Literature, Television, TheaterDrug UseParaphernalia, ViolenceIntersecting IssuesCollateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Violence, Border, Budgets/Taxes/Economics, Business, Civil Rights, Driving, Economics, Education (College Aid), Employment, Environment, Families, Free Speech, Gun Policy, Human Rights, Immigration, Militarization, Money Laundering, Pregnancy, Privacy (Search and Seizure, Drug Testing), Race, Religion, Science, Sports, Women's IssuesMarijuana PolicyGateway Theory, Hemp, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Marijuana Industry, Medical MarijuanaMedicineMedical Marijuana, Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug Prevention, Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C, Harm Reduction (Methadone & Other Opiate Maintenance, Needle Exchange, Overdose Prevention, Pill Testing, Safe Injection Sites)Source and Transit CountriesAndean Drug War, Coca, Hashish, Mexican Drug War, Opium ProductionSpecific DrugsAlcohol, Ayahuasca, Cocaine (Crack Cocaine), Ecstasy, Heroin, Ibogaine, ketamine, Khat, Kratom, Marijuana (Gateway Theory, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Medical Marijuana, Hashish), Methamphetamine, New Synthetic Drugs (Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Stimulants), Nicotine, Prescription Opiates (Fentanyl, Oxycontin), Psilocybin / Magic Mushrooms, Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, Salvia Divinorum)YouthGrade School, Post-Secondary School, Raves, Secondary School