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The Plight of Women in the Penal System featuring Silja J.A. Talvi

The number of women in U.S. prisons has increased 757% in the last 30 years — and the prison system does not have proper services to deal with the population. Talvi, author of Women Behind Bars: the Crisis of Women in the U.S. Prison System, will illuminate the system’s inability to deal with these issues. Free of charge. Full of substance. For more information call (505) 473-6282 or visit www.csf.edu. Sponsored by the College of Santa Fe and the Santa Fe Reporter.
Date: 
Fri, 12/05/2008 - 7:00pm
Location: 
1600 St. Michael’s Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87505
United States

Wendy Chapkis and "Dying to Get High: Marijuana as Medicine" on World AIDS Day

Author Wendy Chapkis will be reading from her new book "Dying to Get High: marijuana as medicine" at Bluestockings Bookstore in the East Village. The New York Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence will be officiating at the free event. "Dying to Get High" is an account of seriously-ill patients -- many of them people living with AIDS -- fighting the federal government for the right to use physician-recommended marijuana. This moving account of what is at stake in the ongoing debates over medical marijuana draws not only on abstract argument but also on the much messier terrain of how people actually live, suffer and die. “This is a most important book about the medical marijuana movement; lively and engaging, it will have broad appeal, not only to folks interested in the medical potential of cannabis, but also to those interested in an end to the drug war and those interested in grass roots activism.” - Paul Krassner Editor of Pot Stories for the Soul (High Times) "Dying to Get High provides a human element to the history, pharmacology, psychology, and politics of medical marijuana in a way that no other work has. The book is as riveting as a detective novel, as informative as a textbook, and as moving as a romance." - Mitch Earleywine Author of Understanding Marijuana (Oxford University Press) About the author: Wendy Chapkis is professor of Sociology and Women & Gender Studies at the University of Southern Maine in Portland, ME. She is the author of the award-winning book Live Sex Acts: Women Performing Erotic Labor and Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance. For more information about the book (including book reviews): http://dyingtogethigh.net
Date: 
Mon, 12/01/2008 - 7:00pm
Location: 
172 Allen Street between Stanton and Rivington
New York, NY
United States

Feature: Looking Forward -- Who Should Be the Next Drug Czar?

If there is one man who symbolizes and epitomizes the federal war on drugs, it is the head of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), colloquially known as the drug czar's office. For the last eight years, that man has been John Walters, a protege of conservative moralist Bill Bennett, the first ONDCP drug czar. With his anti-marijuana media campaigns, his innumerable press releases, and his interference in various state-level initiatives, Walters has been drug reform's bête noire.

https://stopthedrugwar.org/files/walterspinocchio.jpg
Walters parody from 2004 Common Sense for Drug Policy ad (csdp.org/publicservice/potency04.htm)
Now, Walters and his boss, President Bush, are preparing to exit stage right, and the Obama administration will have to choose his successor. Given the foreign wars and failing economy facing the incoming administration, filling the drug czar position doesn't appear to be a high priority for the new resident at the White House. Only one name has been publicly mentioned, Los Angeles police chief William Bratton, and he has said he's not interested. A US News & World Report list of potential White House appointments doesn't even list any names for consideration as drug czar.

But for people interested in undoing some of the harms of the Bush era drug war, ONDCP is very important. As ONDCP explains on its home page:

"The principal purpose of ONDCP is to establish policies, priorities, and objectives for the Nation's drug control program. The goals of the program are to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences. To achieve these goals, the Director of ONDCP is charged with producing the National Drug Control Strategy. The Strategy directs the Nation's anti-drug efforts and establishes a program, a budget, and guidelines for cooperation among Federal, State, and local entities.

"By law, the director of ONDCP also evaluates, coordinates, and oversees both the international and domestic anti-drug efforts of executive branch agencies and ensures that such efforts sustain and complement State and local anti-drug activities. The Director advises the President regarding changes in the organization, management, budgeting, and personnel of Federal Agencies that could affect the Nation's anti-drug efforts; and regarding Federal agency compliance with their obligations under the Strategy."

So, who is it going to be? Drug reformers and others consulted this week by the Chronicle had few actual suggestions -- some worried that anyone suggested or supported by the reform movement would be doomed -- but plenty of ideas about what type of person should replace Walters. And some even speculated about the possibility of just doing away with the drug czar's office altogether.

"The reform community needs to be looking at someone who has a comprehensive public health orientation or who has an evidence-based focus," said Eric Sterling, former counsel to the House Judiciary Committee and currently president of the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation. "This would be someone who says goal number one is treatment of people with hard-core addiction problems and number two is to make sure our prevention programs are effective and well-grounded."

Sterling mentioned a couple of possibilities. "I don't think it's realistic to think we can get a reform sympathizer in there. It's not going to be Ethan Nadelmann. It needs to be someone who has administrative experience in some capacity. One possibility would be Chris Fichtner, the former head of mental health for the state of Illinois," Sterling suggested.

Fichtner is an associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Chicago who has worked with drug reformers in Illinois. He testified in favor of medical marijuana bills in Illinois and Wisconsin.

"Another possibility, someone I know the reform community had a lot of respect for before he went into government is Westley Clark, head of the federal Center for Substance Abuse Services," Sterling continued. "He's African-American, been at the federal level for a long time, has experience managing a federal agency, and a lot of experience in the field."

"If we had our druthers," said National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) executive director Allen St. Pierre, "it would be somebody like Ethan Nadelmann, with a comprehensive understanding of drugs, but that's a wet dream." Instead, he said, one name being kicked around was Mark Kleiman, a professor of Public Policy at the UCLA School of Public Affairs who has written extensively on drug policy and whose innovative ideas sometimes raise as many hackles in the reform community as they do among drug warriors.

St. Pierre mentioned one other possible candidate. "Another name we're hearing is Bud Schuster, a former head of NIDA in the 1980s," he said. "That would be someone coming at it at least from a NIDA point of view, and we need someone like that, not someone just coming at it from a criminal justice perspective."

"I'd almost be happy with any drug czar who doesn't constantly say stupid things," said David Borden, executive director of StoptheDrugWar.org (publisher of this newsletter). "We would like to see someone who will approach it from a public health standpoint, who will work to contain the criminal justice system in ways that protect the public health objectives of drug policy."

Borden pointed to a trio of what he called "moderate academics" as possibilities. "People like Kleiman or Peter Reuter and Robert MacCoun [coauthors of 'Drug War Heresies'] are not drug war hawks and they are thinking people. We need some logical thought at the White House drug office."

"We're as anxious to see what names pop up as anybody," said Dan Bernath, a spokesman for the Marijuana Policy Project. "We think John Walters set the bar pretty low. If there has to be a drug czar, we want to see someone who bases policy on facts and science, not ideology."

"Former Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke once said we need a surgeon general, not a military general, and I think that's a good starting point," said Drug Policy Alliance national affairs director Bill Piper. "At a minimum, we want someone coming from public health or medicine, as opposed to law enforcement or the conservative punditry. Drug reformers and harm reductionists and treatment providers have been in the wilderness for 20 years; now it's time for someone who understands addiction and supports evidence-based programs."

"If we're going to have a drug czar, we need one who insists on accuracy, honesty, transparency, and who is is willing to consider alternatives to the drug war including harm reduction approaches as well as modifications of the drug war such as increased funding for treatment and prevention," said Matthew Robinson, professor of criminal justice at Appalachian State University and co-author of "Lies, Damned Lies, and Drug War Statistics: A Critical Analysis of Claims Made by the Office of National Drug Control Policy."

But, said Robinson, we don't really need a drug czar. "We don't need an ONDCP or a drug war, so therefore we don't need a drug czar," he argued. "Yet, we do need an accurate, honest, transparent agency to evaluate drug abuse control policy (just like with other government policies). It can be ONDCP or some other agency, but if it is ONDCP, it must be removed from the White House since there it is merely a political office whose aim is to further drug war ideology."

Former ONDCP Public Affairs Director (during the Clinton years) Robert Weiner was as critical of Walters and the Bush administration as anybody, but for different reasons. Weiner complained of the systematic weakening of the office in the Bush years.

"This administration has been a disaster in shrinking the power of the drug czar," Weiner said. "They dropped the drug czar's budget certification authority from $19 billion to $13 billion, they took away oversight power over some programs, they've cut the media program, they tried to move out the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) program and the Justice Department community grants program. I've shed many tears as I watched the power of the drug czar deflate by his own lack of initiative."

It didn't have to be that way, Weiner said. "When Bush was selecting a drug czar, there were eight or 10 treatment honchos they were looking at, but he chose a partisan hack. It was as if there were no drug czar. His job was to press the drug issue as a national security and domestic health issue, and he didn't do enough of it."

Weiner is less concerned with the field from which the next drug czar emerges than his ability to advance the office's charge. "The most important thing is that he be a forceful, aggressive, forceful advocate," he said. "No matter what side of the fence you're on, everyone is in favor of drug treatment, and drug court is very good. We need someone who will push the concept of treatment not imprisonment for nonviolent offenders," he said.

But while Weiner would like to see a strengthened drug czar, many drug reformers would be glad to see no drug czar at all. "Patients Out of Time sent a letter to Obama transition co-chair Valerie Jarrett on the 9th," reported the group's Al Byrne. "We recommended the drug czar position be abandoned but... if that was somehow not politically feasible then the position be staffed by a health care professional, specifically a MD or RN who is not an academic/political professional."

"Ideally, ONDCP should be sunsetted," said St. Pierre. "I think many reformers could agree with that, but it doesn't appear to be on the table. If we're going to be burdened with a drug czar's office, we need a break from the two principal models -- the political hacks, like Walters and Bennett, and the law enforcement/military types, like McCaffrey and Lee Brown. If we're going to have a drug czar, make him an MD or someone in the public health realm."

"The nation and the government don't need a drug czar," said Sterling. "One of the important warnings of the 1973 Shafer Commission was about the institutionalization of the anti-drug effort, the creation of self-sustaining bureaucracies. The ONDCP is the prime example of that problem. Because of its prominence, it has the greatest capacity for mischief and gets the most attention for its falsehoods and PR-driven policies," he said.

The federal drug apparatus could be reorganized, he argued. "It may be the case that a reorganization of federal drug agencies is called for, probably with coordination under the Department of Health and Human Services," he posited. "There doesn't need to be a DEA with its SWAT mentality, and the effective management of a drug control program doesn't require White House supervision, either."

The agency comes up for reauthorization in 2010. That could prove an opportunity to try to kill it or, more likely, to try to restructure it. While going for the kill would be sweet, that appears unlikely to happen at this point.

It is "not realistic" to think an effort to sunset ONDCP in 2010 will bear immediate fruit, said Sterling. "The effective drug control movement has not developed a campaign and a political imperative, a drug control organizational paradigm that is a clear alternative to the existing one," he pointed out. "Therefore, there is no campaign in the Congress or in the news media."

Nor is there any evidence that the Obama administration is eyeing ONDCP for the axe. "The only way there would be any drive in the administration to do away with ONDCP would be if there is an analysis from the new cabinet secretaries deciding collectively that ONDCP is a big enough problem that they would want to abolish it," said Sterling.

Another obstacle is that incoming vice-president Joe Biden crafted the legislation that created ONDCP 20 years ago. "Any proposal to do away with the drug czar would get into that history with Biden. It would have to reject Biden's approach, or he would have to change his mind. If Biden were to say ONDCP was now unneeded, that would be one thing, but I haven't seen any sign of that."

With the prospect of killing ONDCP apparently off the table for now, some reformers are concentrating on making the best ONDCP possible. That may be the best to hope for in the near- and medium-term.

"If we could change this office so its responsibility is reducing the harms of both substance abuse and drug prohibition, then it would be very useful," said Piper. "There are very clearly problems with both drug abuse and the war on drugs. Even if the drug war ended tomorrow, there would still be a drug problem and a need for national leadership around harm reduction and treatment, including alcohol and tobacco. Reauthorization in 2010 is a real chance to change what ONDCP is all about. If that's possible it's worth keeping the agency."

Now the waiting game begins. Given the Obama administration's priorities and the full plate of problems it faces, we could be waiting awhile for a new drug czar.

Obstacles to the Development and Use of Pharmacotherapies for Addiction

The Law & Health Care Program at the University of Maryland School of Law invites you to attend Obstacles to the Development and Use of Pharmacotherapies for Addiction. The event is co-sponsored by Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy and the Open Society Institute-Baltimore. In recent years, there has been a growing understanding that alcohol and other drug addictions are chronic diseases that require long-term relapse prevention therapy. At the same time that our understanding of addiction as a chronic disease has developed, so has the ability to treat patients with pharmacotherapies. While there is an increasing body of evidence that the use of pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol and other addictions is both clinically and cost effective, there are still a number of obstacles that exist to their development and use in the therapeutic setting. This conference will explore the various impediments that stand in the way of a more robust acceptance of such treatment by health care providers, patients, regulators, and the courts. Panelists at the conference will discuss the obstacles that exist at each stage of medication development and uptake, including challenges for pharmaceutical companies; obstacles relating to clinical trials and the FDA approval process; patient reluctance to use and provider reluctance to screen for, and prescribe, medications to treat addiction; and gaps in insurance coverage for these medications. Because a significant number of individuals receive treatment for their addictions through the justice system, a conference panel will be devoted to discussing the experience of drug court judges and the work of scholars who have studied the use of such treatment in the courts and prisons. The intended audience for this conference includes lawyers, health care providers and health policy makers who work on issues related to alcohol and other addictions. The conference fee is $25. For additional information and to register on-line, please visit the conference website: www.law.umaryland.edu/healthlaw2008. Public parking is available in the Baltimore Grand Garage across from the School of Law. The entrance is on Paca Street. Parking fees are the responsibility of the participant. If you require special accommodations to attend or participate, please provide information about your requirements to Lu Ann Marshall, 410-706-4128 (1-800-735-2258 TTY/VOICE), [email protected], at least five business days in advance.
Date: 
Fri, 11/07/2008 - 8:30am - 4:45pm
Location: 
500 West Baltimore Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
United States

Submissions Wanted: The 5th International Conference on the History of Drugs and Alcohol: The Pathways to Prohibition

The biannual conference of the Alcohol and Drugs in History Society is being hosted for the first time in the UK by the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare, Glasgow, a research collaboration between the University of Strathclyde and Glasgow Caledonian University (www.gcal.ac.uk/historyofhealth). The conference is seeking papers and panels that connect with the broad subject of the 'pathways to prohibition'. Proposed papers or panels can be on any topic in the history of intoxicants, drugs and alcohol, and the conference hopes to draw on case studies from all periods and geographical contexts. Some issues to be considered include: 1) The representation of consumers which underlay decisions to instigate or reject prohibition 2) The strategies of consumers and suppliers when confronting the challenges of prohibition 3) Changing ideas about consumption under prohibition regimes 4) The relationship between local initiatives and the national and international politics of prohibition 5) Routes to, and out of, prohibition. Abstracts of proposed papers (no more than 500 words long) or of proposed panels should be sent by e-mail, fax or post by November 15th 2008 to: Dr Patricia Barton CSHHH Dept of History University of Strathclyde 16 Richmond Street Glasgow G1 1XQ UK E: [email protected] Tel: 44 (0)141 548 2932/ Fax: 44 (0)141 552 8509
Location: 
GLG
United Kingdom

The 5th International Conference on the History of Drugs and Alcohol: The Pathways to Prohibition

The biannual conference of the Alcohol and Drugs in History Society is being hosted for the first time in the UK by the Centre for the Social History of Health and Healthcare, Glasgow, a research collaboration between the University of Strathclyde and Glasgow Caledonian University (www.gcal.ac.uk/historyofhealth). More information to come.
Date: 
Fri, 06/26/2009 - 9:48am - Sun, 06/28/2009 - 7:00pm
Location: 
GLG
United Kingdom

"High" Crimes: Punishing America's Drug Offenders

The New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement presents is Fall 2008 Symposium. * What is the current legal landscape drug offenders face in the American judicial system? * Are these laws effective in rehabilitating and punishing these offenders? Two Panels will Discuss: * The use of drug courts as an alternative to traditional forms of narcotics jurisprudence, and their impact on communities. * The traditional punishments, specifically mandatory minimum sentencing and the Sentencing Guidelines, and the controversies and policy justifications surrounding these issues. Featured Speakers: Panel I: Drug Courts * Hon. Kevin S. Burke, Hennepin District Court Judge, Minnesota * Joy Clark, Co-Chair of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers' Task Force on Problem-Solving Courts * Hon. Diana L. Maldonado, Chelsea District Court Judge, Massachusetts * Gerald P. Stewart, Assistant District Attorney, Suffolk County, Massachusetts * Hon. Leo T. Sorokin, United States Magistrate Judge, District of Massachusetts Panel II: Drug Sentencing * Professor Douglas A. Berman, William B. Saxbe Designated Professor of Law, Moritz College of Law, Ohio State University * Mary Price, Vice-President and General Counsel of Families Against Mandatory Minimums * Heidi Brieger, Chief of the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force Unit, United States Attorney, District of Massachusetts * David W. White, Jr., Past President, Massachusetts Bar Association Contact Information RSVP to: Adonia Simpson at 617-422-7238, [email protected] or [email protected]
Date: 
Fri, 11/07/2008 - 8:00am - 2:00pm
Location: 
154 Stuart Street
Boston, MA
United States

Afghanistan Today: Drugs, Detention, and Counterinsurgency

Hosted by The Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law, co-sponsored by The New America Foundation KEYNOTE ADDRESS BY AMBASSADOR RICHARD C. HOLBROOKE As the U.S. engages in a simmering war as well as in continued attempts at building infrastructure, the conference will consider a wide-ranging set of questions in order to clarify policy choices regarding both military and civilian investment in the country. What is the current state of the Taliban? What might the reversion of Afghanistan into failed-state status mean? How prevalent – and how effective – has counterinsurgency been in the country? What are the possibilities for increasing the size of the Afghan army and for embedding U.S. advisors and troops? What role does NATO play? What are the realistic scenarios for stemming the drug trade, and for mounting reconstruction? As a result, the day promises to provide a comprehensive picture of the challenges that face America’s foreign policy establishment as one administration transitions power to the next. Featuring speakers: Ambassador Richard C. Holbrooke, Steve Coll, Peter Bergen, Barnett Rubin, Scott Horton, Steve Simon, David Kilcullen, Joanne Mariner, Imtiaz Ali, Lt. Gen., David Barno, Shuja Nawaz, Lawrence Wright, Elizabeth Rubin, Nir Rosen, Sean Langan, Doug Wankel, Andrew Wilder, Stephen Holmes, Karen Greenberg, Ambassador Omar Samad, and others. This event is free and open to the public -- for more information, see http://www.lawandsecurity.org/events/AfghanistanToday.cfm.
Date: 
Fri, 10/17/2008 - 9:00am - 4:30pm
Location: 
108 W. 3rd Street Lipton Hall
New York, NY
United States

Conference: Psychedelic Drugs in Medicine, Art, Spirituality and Culture

Horizons 2008 Horizons is a forum for learning about psychedelics. It seeks to open a fresh dialogue about psychedelics and challenges society to rethink their role in history, culture, medicine, spirituality and art. After a successful debut in 2007, it is now an annual event. Speakers and artists have been announced and tickets are on sale now! Psychedelics are a unique class of psychoactive drugs that have been used by humans for thousands of years. Millions of people in every corner of the globe have used them to alter their consciousness in search of introspective contemplation, spiritual insights, creative exploration and physical and psychological healing. In the 1950s and early 1960s, legal research with psychedelics spurred important discoveries in science and psychology. During the 1960s, psychedelics entered worldwide popular culture. Fueled by the wild social dogmas of the era, recreational use become commonplace. Questions about their safety, medical value, history and implications in politics and culture were unfortunately answered with numerous myths spread by both their users and the media. Times are changing. The freewheeling sixties are now a distant memory and the hype of the millennial rave fever has finally been laid to rest. Now, a small group of dedicated researchers and activists has orchestrated a renaissance in psychedelic research that is re-shaping the public's understanding of these unique substances. Horizons brings together the brightest minds and boldest voices of this movement to share their research, insights and dreams for the future. Learn more about Horizons, speakers, the 2007 event or other resources for psychedelic knowledge. Speakers (in alphabetical order) * Allan Hunt Badiner - Co-editor of Zig Zag Zen: Buddhism and Psychedelics * Rick Doblin, Ph.D. - Founder/president of MAPS * Robert Forte - Divinity scholar, editor of Entheogens and the Future of Religion * Alex Grey - Artist and co-founder of Chapel of Sacred Mirrors * Allyson Grey - Artist and co-founder of Chapel of Sacred Mirrors * Roland Griffiths, Ph.D. - Psilocybin researcher, Professor of Behavioral Biology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine * John Halpern, M.D. - MDMA, psilocybin and peyote researcher, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Laboratory for Integrative Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School * Sean Helfritsch & Isaiah Saxon - Video artists, creators of Bjork's Wanderlust 3D music video * Dan Merkur - Psychoanalyst, author of The Ecstatic Imagination * Dimitri Mobengo Mugianis - Ibogaine therapist * David Nichols, Ph.D. - Founder of Heffter Research Institute, Distinguished Chair in Pharmacology at Purdue University * Daniel Pinchbeck - Author of Breaking Open the Head and 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl * Sasha and Ann Shulgin - Pharmacological pioneers, authors of Tikhal and Pikhal Reception Friday, September 19 8pm - midnight. Performance at 10pm. Free with a Horizons conference ticket, $10 otherwise (cash only). An evening of celebration, art, performance and friends featuring some of New York City's finest creative talent. Featuring: (in alphabetical order) large-scale inflatable installations by AKAirways, the GamelaTron, the world's first and only full robotic Gamelan orchestra and live silkscreening by Peripheral Media Projects. For more information, including tickets, see: http://www.horizonsnyc.org/
Date: 
Fri, 09/19/2008 - 8:00pm - Sun, 09/21/2008 - 6:00pm
Location: 
55 Washington Square South
New York, NY 10012
United States

Press Release: Horizons Presents Groundbreaking Research and Perspectives on Psychedelic Drugs in Medicine, Art, Spirituality and Culture at Conference September 19-21, at Judson Memorial Church

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: September 15, 2008 CONTACT: Kevin Balktick at [email protected] or 646-537-1701, or Neal Goldsmith at [email protected] Horizons Presents Groundbreaking Research and Perspectives on Psychedelic Drugs in Medicine, Art, Spirituality and Culture at Conference September 19-21, at Judson Memorial Church Experts from across North America gather to discuss the ongoing renaissance in the exploration of psychedelic drugs. Presenters include medical researchers from several of North America's most prestigious universities, world-renown artists, religious scholars, bestselling authors and other key players. Horizons is the largest psychedelics conference in the Americas. Psychedelics are a unique class of psychoactive drugs that have been used by humans for thousands of years. Millions of people in every corner of the globe have used them to alter their consciousness in search of introspective contemplation, spiritual insights, creative exploration and physical and psychological healing. In the 1950s and early 1960s, legal research with psychedelics spurred important discoveries in neuroscience and psychology. During the 1960s, psychedelics entered worldwide popular culture. Questions about their safety, medical value, history and implications in politics and culture were unfortunately answered with numerous myths spread by both their recreational users and the media. The freewheeling sixties have become a distant memory and the hype of the millennial rave fever has faded as well. Now, a small group of dedicated researchers and activists has orchestrated a renaissance in psychedelic research that is re-shaping the public's understanding of these unique substances. Horizons brings together the brightest minds and boldest voices of this movement to share their research, insights and dreams for the future. Notable presenters include John Halpern MD from Harvard Medical School, Roland Griffiths Ph.D. From Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, David E. Nichols MD from Purdue University, Isiah Saxon and Sean Hellfritsch, the video artists responsible for Bjork's most recent 3-D music video and pharmacological pioneers Alexander and Ann Shulgin. The venue, Judson Memorial Church, is a historically significant, landmarked location. It has a long history of promoting the arts, free speech and progressive politics. For more information please go to: www.horizonsnyc.org
Location: 
New York, NY
United States

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