Drug War Chronicle

comprehensive coverage of the War on Drugs since 1997

Medical Marijuana Update

The congressional shield for medical marijuana states remains alive, New York announces it will add opioid use as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana, and more.

National

Senate Panel Approves Medical Marijuana Protections. The Senate Appropriations Committee last Thursday approved an amendment that shields legal medical marijuana operations from federal interference. The amendment to the Justice Department appropriations bill bars the department from using its funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana. A similar measure was approved in the House version of the bill.

Florida

Florida Smokable Marijuana Ban is On Again. The on again-off again ban on state medical marijuana patients using smokable forms of marijuana is on again. A state appeals court ruled Monday that the state's ban will remain in effect "pending final disposition of the merits of (a recent) appeal." A circuit court judge had invalidated the ban, but the state Health Department appealed that decision, and now the ban is on until the case is decided.

Maine

Maine Supreme Court Rules Workmen's Compensation Doesn't Cover Medical Marijuana. In a ruling last Thursday, the state Supreme Court held that employers do not have to pay for medical marijuana under the state's workers' compensation system. In a 5-2 ruling, the court held that federal law takes precedence and that making employers pay for medical marijuana would force them to violate federal law.

New York

New York Health Department of Health Announces Opioid Use to be Added as a Qualifying Condition for Medical Marijuana. The Health Department on Monday announced it will develop a regulatory amendment to add opioid use as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana. "The opioid epidemic in New York State is an unprecedented crisis, and it is critical to ensure that providers have as many options as possible to treat patients in the most effective way," said New York State Health Commissioner Dr. Howard Zucker. "As research indicates that marijuana can reduce the use of opioids, adding opioid use as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana has the potential to help save countless lives across the state." Opioid use joins 12 other qualifying conditions under the state's Medical Marijuana Program. Currently, patients can be eligible if they have been diagnosed with one or more of the following severe debilitating or life-threatening conditions: cancer; HIV infection or AIDS; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; spinal cord injury with spasticity; epilepsy; inflammatory bowel disease; neuropathy; Huntington's disease; post-traumatic stress disorder; or chronic pain.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Canada Legalizes Marijuana! [FEATURE]

With final approval by the Senate Tuesday night, the Canadian parliament has legalized marijuana. That makes Canada the second country to legalize marijuana (after Uruguay), with what will be the world's second-largest legal marijuana market (after California).

Canada also becomes the first G7 country to free the weed. While nine US states and the District of Columbia have also legalized marijuana, it remains illegal under federal law here.

The move, fulfilling a campaign promise by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and the ruling Liberal Party, puts an end to nearly a century of marijuana prohibition in the Great White North. It didn't come without a struggle, with Conservative senators seeking to delay the measure and succeeding in pushing back the actual rollout date from a once-promised July to what now looks like September.

Under the Cannabis Act, people 18 and over (19 in some provinces) will be able to legally possess up to 30 grams of pot in public, and each household can grow up to four plants. The House of Commons and the government turned back a Senate amendment that would have allowed provinces to ban home cultivation.

The law retains criminal penalties for possession of more than 30 grams or growing more than four plants, and includes an especially harsh provision mandating up to 14 years in prison for sales to minors.

Each province will have its own scheme for handling sales, with some considerable variation. In Ontario and New Brunswick, for instance, sales will be handled by the province, while in most other provinces, sales will be handled by the private sector or private-public collaborations. Marijuana will also be available for sale online.

But Canadians will have to wait for edibles. Marijuana-infused foods will not be available for purchase for some months until the government develops regulations for them.

Marijuana is already big business in Canada, generating an estimated $4.5 billion in sales in 2015, and Canadian marijuana producers are already geared up to produce a huge legal marijuana crop -- in fact, maybe too huge. The two largest producers, Aurora Cannabis and Canopy Growth, are set to produce a million pounds each, while second-tier producers will be adding to a possible glut.

Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has fulfilled a campaign promise. (Creative Commons)
But those are worries for down the road. Tuesday evening for was for celebrating.

"It's been too easy for our kids to get marijuana -- and for criminals to reap the profits. Today, we change that," a triumphant Trudeau tweeted just after the final vote.

"We've just witnessed a very historic vote that ends 90 years of prohibition," Liberal Senator Tony Dean told reporters. "It ends 90 years of needless criminalization, it ends a prohibition model that inhibited and discouraged public health and community health in favor of just-say-no approaches that simply failed young people miserably."

Not everyone was pleased. Senator Leo Housakos, a Quebec conservative, tweeted forebodingly that passage of the law would be "catastrophic for Canadian generations to come."

But while Canadian conservatives foresaw disaster, American activists saw a model to emulate.

"Canada should be applauded for taking bold and decisive steps towards ending the failed prohibition of marijuana," said Hannah Hetzer, Senior International Policy Manager for the Drug Policy Alliance. "Canada's progress will galvanize support for drug policy reforms in the US and all around the world."

Hetzer also lauded Canada's federalist approach to the issue and called for redressing the damage done to individuals by pot prohibition.

"Canada's decentralized system will give provinces the freedom to tailor marijuana legalization to their local needs and contexts, allowing us to study and learn from the many different models that will emerge," she said. "Canada should ensure that the harms of marijuana prohibition are rectified, especially by expunging people's marijuana arrest records and by investing in communities most harmed by prohibition."

"This is a historic step forward for the movement to end marijuana prohibition," said Marijuana Policy Project spokesman Mason Tvert. "We commend the members of Parliament and the prime minister for their extraordinary demonstration of leadership on this issue. Canada will set a great example for countries that are considering similar reforms, and it will inspire much-needed debate in those that are not."

While the US states have taken the lead, it's an end to federal prohibition that is required, said Tvert. "It is time for the US to take similar action and adopt a more rational federal marijuana policy. There has been a lot of positive movement in Congress lately, so hopefully, members will be inspired to finally address this issue head-on, as Canada has."

Chronicle AM: Canada Legalizes Marijuana! (6/20/18)

Canada has become the second country to legalize marijuana after final votes in parliament Tuesday, the Supreme Court agrees to hear an Indiana asset forfeiture case, Eleanor Holmes Norton files a bill to allow marijuana in public housing in states where it's legal, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Eleanor Holmes Norton Files Bill to Allow Marijuana Use in Public Housing Where It's Legal. Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC) has filed a bill that would allow residents of public housing in states and localities where marijuana is legal to use it at home without fear of being evicted. Under Norton's bill, a person may not be denied federally-assisted housing for the use of marijuana in jurisdictions where medical or recreational marijuana has been legalized. Under Norton's bill, smoking marijuana would be treated the same as smoking tobacco in federally-assisted housing. The bill is not yet available on the congressional website.

Asset Forfeiture

Supreme Court Agrees to Hear Indiana Civil Asset Forfeiture Case. The US Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case of an Indiana man who used the proceeds of his father's life insurance policy to buy a $42,000 Land Rover only to have the vehicle seized after he was caught selling heroin with it. When authorities moved to forfeit the vehicle, Tyson Timbs challenged the action and won in the Grant Superior Court, with the judge finding the vehicle was purchased legally and that its forfeiture would be "grossly disproportionate" to Timb's offense. The Indiana Court of Appeals agreed, noting that the maximum fine for Timbs' offenses was only $10,000 and suggested the seizure amounted to an "excessive fine." The state Supreme Court then reversed, Timbs appealed, and here we are.

Reproductive Rights

Federal Appeals Court Panel Rejects Wisconsin Woman's "Cocaine Mom" Lawsuit. A three-judge panel on the US 7th Circuit of Appeals on Monday dismissed a lawsuit challenging Wisconsin's "cocaine mom" law, which permits the detention of pregnant women who are suspected of abusing drugs. The panel dismissed the case because the woman, Tammy Loetscher, had moved out of the state. A US district court judge last year found the law unconstitutional and issued an injunction barring it from being enforced, but the law has remained in force while the state appealed. The appeals court panel's ruling leaves the law in force for now. "Today's decision means that all women in Wisconsin have to worry that when they seek health care, if there's even a chance they might be pregnant, the state can take them into custody, lock them up in a drug treatment program, a mental hospital or a jail -- whether or not drug treatment is really needed," said Nancy Rosenbloom, director of legal advocacy for the National Advocates for Pregnant Women, which represented Loertscher.

International

Canada Legalizes Marijuana. With final votes in the House of Commons and Senate on Tuesday, the Canadian parliament has approved the marijuana legalization bill, C-45. The bill legalizes the possession of up to 30 grams in public and allows the cultivation of up to four plants per household. It will also allow for regulated and taxed marijuana businesses, with regulations of sales left to the provinces. Provincial and territorial governments need s few weeks to prepare for retail sales, so the actual rollout of legalization is expected to happen in mid-September.

Australia Festival Pill Testing a Success, Should Be Emulated, Report Finds. A study released Wednesday by the Safety and Testing Advisory Service at Festivals and Events finds that pill testing at the Groovin the Moo festival in Canberra in April was "an overwhelming success" and the federal government should take a leadership role in introducing a plan for broader pill testing. "The pilot demonstrated that such an intervention is possible and that people are willing to use the service, despite the limitations arising from the tight timelines, inauspicious physical infrastructure and the lack of dissemination strategies on-site during the festival," the report said. Less than half the drugs tested at the festival were relatively pure.

Different Psychedelics Share a Common Trait: Enhancing ‘Neural Plasticity"

New research suggests that different classes of psychedelic drugs all share the tendency to promote the growth of new brain cells, especially the kind that reach out and forge connections with other brain cells. This finding could help explain both the mind-expanding properties of the drugs and the mechanisms by which they appear to act as valuable treatments for a broad range of psychiatric disorders.

Earlier research had identified the dissociative anesthetic ketamine as promoting growth in key brain cells (as well as being a fast-acting and effective treatment for depression), but this new research finds similar effects in amphetamine-based psychedelics such as DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), ergoline psychedelics (such as LSD), and tryptamines (such as DMT).

Using experiments in cell culture and with animals, researchers led by Dr. David Olson of the University of California at Davis found that various classes of hallucinogenic drugs acted on the structure and function of cortical neurons using the same mechanisms as ketamine. The findings could point to new treatment approaches for depression, anxiety, PTSD, and addiction, the researchers wrote last Tuesday in the peer-reviewed journal Cell Reports.

"The state-of-the-art, prototypical, fast-acting antidepressant is ketamine -- a compound that promotes neural plasticity and repairs circuits involved in mood and anxiety disorders," Olson told MedPage Today. "Our work demonstrates that psychedelics produce comparable effects on neuronal structure and function, providing a potential explanation for why MDMA, psilocybin, and ayahuasca seem to have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in the clinic."

Using test tubes, as well as rats and fruit fly larvae, the researchers found that all of these classes of psychedelics increased "neural plasticity," the ability to create new connections among brain cells. The drugs all excited the growth of dendritic spines and axons, the cerebral hangers-on that brain cells use to reach out and create connections, or synapses, with other brain cells.

That's the opposite of what happens with depression, anxiety, PTSD, and addiction. The current theory is that these disorders may occur when neurites retract, not allowing brain cells to connect at synapses.

"One of the hallmarks of depression is that the neurites in the prefrontal cortex -- a key brain region that regulates emotion, mood, and anxiety -- those neurites tend to shrivel up," Olson said in a statement.

Olson's research found that the neural plasticity effect found with ketamine was also "remarkably potent" with even very small doses of LSD, which could help explain the popularity of "microdosing" among people seeking happier and more creative lives. Chemical compounds that mimicked psilocybin and MDMA also increased neural plasticity on the same level as ketamine, and that could mean new opportunities for researchers working with psychiatric disorders.

The studies also showed that the effect outlasted the action of the drugs. In rats, for example, psilocybin produced results that lasted for hours after the drug had left the body. Similarly, rats given a single dose of DMT not only saw an increase in dendritic spines similar to ketamine but saw that effect last for 24 hours when the drug itself had been eliminated within one hour.

This is potentially very good news for researchers working on treatments for anxiety, depression, and addiction, which all seem to act on the same brain circuits.

"Prior to this study, there was only one player in town and that was ketamine. This opens up some new doors," Olson said. "As the diversity of chemical structures capable of producing ketamine-like plasticity effects continues to grow, so does my hope that we will find a safe and effective fast-acting treatment for depression," he said.

This article was produced by Drug Reporter, a project of the Independent Media Institute.

Book Review: The Power and Promise of Psychedelics: Michael Pollan Show Us How to Change Our Minds

Can psychedelic drugs improve our lives? Michael Pollan thinks so, and he makes a pretty persuasive case in his latest book, How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence.

This is good stuff. Pollan elegantly blends science, medicine, memoir, travel writing and history in a dazzlingly authoritative dive into his subject matter. If you want to read only one book on psychedelics, make it this one.

The subject is something of a departure for Pollan, who has risen to prominence as the consummate foodie, authoring such well-known tomes as The Omnivore's Dilemma, Food Rules, and In Defense of Food. But it's not entirely surprising: In his 2001 The Botany of Desire, Pollan delved into the world psychoactive substance to examine the mutually beneficial relationship between humans and marijuana. (He also described our relationship with apples, tulips, and potatoes.)

In his current effort, Pollan dives into the science of psychedelics, going deep into brain chemistry and the actual mechanisms by which these drugs alter consciousness. Basically, the science suggests, psychedelics damp down the brain's default mode network, the cerebral mechanism that allows us to maintain normal consciousness. When the default mode network is weakened, new neural pathways open up, brain parts that don’t usually communicate with each other start talking, and the going gets weird.

And that opens the door not only for trippy imagery, but also for spiritual epiphanies or, less grandly, coming to terms with oneself and one’s issues. As Pollan reviews the current research taking place in this psychedelic revival, he encounters terminal cancer patients whose closely guided trips help them grapple with their own mortality, spiritual seekers finding enlightenment, and drug users who find themselves able to break noxious addictions.

He also tries psychedelics himself -- something he hadn't done before -- taking LSD, magic mushrooms, and toad venom containing DMT. His description of his experiences is vivid and compelling, and he tries his best to express those ineffable "truths" the psychedelic experience offers. Describing the subjective reality of an acid trip is a difficult feat, and Pollan does better than most.

And speaking of magic mushrooms, who knew that the term was coined by a Time/Life publicist in the 1950s? I didn't. But that was indeed the case as Life editors were putting together the groundbreaking tale of Gordon Wasson's experience eating psilocybe cubensis with Mexican shaman Maria Sabina.

Pollan's book is full of such delicious little tidbits of psychedelic lore and history, including an account of the Stoned Ape hypothesis, favored by some mycophiles, which argues that hominids ingesting magic mushrooms led to the development of human consciousness.

But it also tells the tale of psychedelics as never before, revealing a "secret history" of lost research on psychedelics in the 1950s and 1960s, where thousands of subjects ingested them in more than a thousand scientific experiments. Some of the results were impressive -- LSD appeared to help curb alcoholism, as well as helping people come to terms with mental disorders or terminal illnesses -- but that body of research was largely forgotten as the federal government and scientific establishment led a severe crackdown once Tim Leary and the hippies got ahold of acid.

Naturally, Leary remains the central figure of the 1960s psychedelic scene -- and a highly contentious one -- but one of Pollan’s biggest contributions is showing how psychedelics were busily leaking out of the lab and into the culture at large in ways that had nothing to do with Leary. Hollywood actors and other elites were taking LSD in therapeutic sessions, spreading the word and participating in group sessions that in some cases seemed more like acid parties than therapy sessions.

Still, once Leary shed his researcher's objectivity to become a messianic acid missionary with his slogan of "tune in, turn on, and drop out," and undertook a mission to cure not sick people but the culture itself, it was game over for the first wave of psychedelic research:

"The fact that by their very nature or the way that first generation of researchers happened to construct the experience, psychedelics introduced something deeply subversive to the West that the various establishments had little choice but to repulse. LSD truly was an acid, dissolving almost everything with which in came into contact, beginning with the hierarchies of the mind (the superego, ego, and unconscious) and going from there to society’s various structures of authority and then to lines of every imaginable kind, between patient and therapist, research and recreation, sickness and health, self and other, subject and object, the spiritual and the material. If all such lines are manifestations of the Apollonian strain in Western civilization, the impulse that erects distinctions, dualities, and hierarchies, and defends them, the psychedelics represented the ungovernable Dionysian force that blithely washes all those lines away."

For the past half-century, psychedelics have been making a slow, but now rapidly accelerating recovery from the repression sparked by Leary's proselytizing and the specter of a psychedelicized America. Again, Pollan shines with his explication of the mind-blowing research taking place and the possibilities being opened up. If there was any question that psychedelics are enjoying a scientific and medical renaissance, Pollan puts that to bed.

Yet, in awe of the power of psychedelics, Pollan stops short of calling for their legalization. Instead, he seems to want every trip to be guided, every journey to have a destination. Has he been captured by the very scientists and researchers whose stories he tells? He writes about the spiritual and the psychological, religion and science, and "shamans in white lab coats," but he doesn't want to talk about recreational use of the drugs.

But the psychedelics are here, and they are being used just for fun. The molecule is in our midst and the fungus is among us. Neither is going away nor are they staying in the lab.

How to Change Your Mind  is a major addition to the literature on psychedelics. Reading it will blow your mind. Do it now.

Chronicle AM: Acting DEA Chief Stepping Down, NYC to Change Marijuana Arrest Policy, More... (6/19/18)

A second acting DEA administrator is set to resign, New York City Mayor de Blasio has a plan to reduce Big Apple marijuana arrests, the Canadian legalization bill heads for the goal line, and more.

NYC Mayor de Blasio announces plan to reduce marijuana arrests, but activists say it's not enough. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

New York City Mayor Announces New Policy to Reduce Marijuana Arrests. Mayor Bill de Blasio said Tuesday that the NYPD will not arrest many people caught smoking pot under a new policy set to begin September 1. But people on probation or parole or who have open arrest warrants would still be arrested. Around 17,500 people are arrested for marijuana possession each year; de Blasio said the policy shift would turn about 10,000 of those arrests into citations instead.

Advocates Slam Mayor de Blasio's New Marijuana Arrest Plan. The Drug Policy Alliance and VOCAL-NY said the mayor's announced move doesn't go far enough and does not address the racial disparities in arrests that prompted the policy shift in the first place. "It's frustrating that as the New York State Health Department moves toward legalization, the City is continuing its shameful history of racist marijuana enforcement. It is also confusing because the new policy does not appear to address racial disparities at all, which was the issue that supposedly prompted this in-house review," said Civil Rights Campaign Director Nick Encalada-Malinowski and Drug Policy Alliance New York Director Kassandra Frederique. "The exceptions that the Mayor has laid out -- arrests for people on parole or probation, people with criminal records, people with warrants or lacking ID, or for 'officer discretion' -- will compound existing collateral consequences and all but guarantee the status quo of racial disparity continues."

Medical Marijuana

Florida Smokable Marijuana Ban is On Again. The on again-off again ban on state medical marijuana patients using smokable forms of marijuana is on again. A state appeals court has ruled that the state's ban will remain in effect "pending final disposition of the merits of (a recent) appeal." A circuit court judge had invalidated the ban, but the state Health Department appealed that decision, and now the ban is on until the case is decided.

Drug Policy

Acting DEA Head to Step Down. Acting DEA administrator Robert Patterson told staff at the agency Monday he is retiring. Patterson said in an email to staff that he "realized that the administrator of the DEA needs to decide and address priorities for years into the future -- something which has become increasingly challenging in an acting capacity." Patterson is a 30-year veteran of the agency who replaced the previous acting administrator, Chuck Rosenberg. Rosenberg resigned over policy differences with the Trump administration.

International

Canada House of Commons Votes to Legalize Marijuana, Sends Bill Back to Senate. The House of Commons voted 205-82 Monday to approve some Senate amendments to the C-45 legalization bill, sending the bill back to the Senate for continued debate and a final vote. The Commons rejected the Senate's proposed ban on marijuana companies selling branded merchandise and allowing provinces to ban home cultivation.

Chronicle AM: House Passes "Dangerous" SITSA Act, NY Adds MedMJ for Opioids, More... (6/18/18)

Arizona Republicans go one way, Texas Republicans go another; the House passes the SITSA Act, New York will allow medical marijuana for opioid use, and more.

The House has passed a new, old school drug war bill. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Poll: Arizona Republicans Still Don't Like Weed. A new poll from OH Predictive Insights finds that nearly three-quarters of state Republican primary voters oppose marijuana legalization. Only 21% were in favor. Still, a marijuana legalization nearly passed statewide in 2016.

Top New York Health Official Says Cuomo Panel Will Endorse Legalization. Dr. Howard Zucker, the state's top health regulator, said Monday a Cuomo administration panel will recommend that the state legalize marijuana. "We looked at the pros. We looked at the cons… the pros outweigh the cons," Zucker said of the panel's work.

Texas GOP Endorses Marijuana Decriminalization, More. At the party's state convention this past weekend, delegates approved platform planks calling for the decriminalization of marijuana possession, support for hemp farming, expanding access to medical marijuana, and calling for the rescheduling of marijuana.

Medical Marijuana

New York Health Department of Health Announces Opioid Use to be Added as a Qualifying Condition for Medical Marijuana. The Health Department on Monday announced it will develop a regulatory amendment to add opioid use as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana. "The opioid epidemic in New York State is an unprecedented crisis, and it is critical to ensure that providers have as many options as possible to treat patients in the most effective way," said New York State Health Commissioner Dr. Howard Zucker. "As research indicates that marijuana can reduce the use of opioids, adding opioid use as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana has the potential to help save countless lives across the state." Opioid use joins 12 other qualifying conditions under the state's Medical Marijuana Program. Currently, patients can be eligible if they have been diagnosed with one or more of the following severe debilitating or life-threatening conditions: cancer; HIV infection or AIDS; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis; spinal cord injury with spasticity; epilepsy; inflammatory bowel disease; neuropathy; Huntington's disease; post-traumatic stress disorder; or chronic pain.

Drug Policy

House Passes SITSA Act. Over the protests of drug reform and other groups, the House last Friday approved HR 2851, the Stop Importation and Trafficking of Synthetic Analogues (SITSA) Act. The bill has already passed out of committee and awaits a House floor vote. The bill is an old-school drug war response to new psychoactive substances that relies heavily on the criminal justice system. The Drug Policy Alliance called the bill "dangerous" because it grants the Justice Department "broad new powers to ban synthetic analog drugs, decide what the sentences should be, and take away the requirement for Congressional oversight that has been in place for 40 years." The bill now heads to the Senate.

International

France Poll for First Time Finds Majority for Marijuana Legalization. A new poll from the Institut français d'opinion publique (Ifop) for Terra Nova and Echo Citoyen, a think tank and a citizens' political group, for the first time reports a majority for legalization. The poll had support at 51%, with 40% opposed and 9% undecided. The poll marks a "turning point," said Thierry Pech, head of Terra Nova. "French people made the finding that prohibition and repression did not work to preserve the health of users," Pech said. Under current French law, pot possession is punishable by up to a year in jail and a fine of more than $4,000.

Making Matters Worse: DEA's Move to Restrict Opioid Prescriptions Pushed Users to the Dark Web

By the end of 2013, the country's quiet opioid addiction crisis was no longer so quiet. Opioid overdose deaths that year topped 16,000, more than four times the same statistic for 1999. That prompted a number of measures at the state and federal level to rein in opioid prescriptions, including a move by the DEA in October 2014 to tighten its policies around some of the most commonly prescribed opioids.

Dark Web fentanyl sales rose after the DEA restricted some prescription opioids. (Creative Commons)
The new DEA policy -- aimed at popular opioids such as Vicodin and Lortab -- imposed restrictions on doctors' prescribing and made it more difficult for patients to get refills. In one sense, the policy was a success: Prescriptions for those drugs decreased almost immediately. But new research adds to an increasing body of evidence that restricting opioid prescribing has not solved the opioid crisis but instead worsened it.

Since the DEA policy shift, opioid overdose deaths continued to grow with more than 40,000 fatal opioid overdoses in 2016. And while prescription opioid overdose deaths have slightly decreased -- there were about 14,000 that year -- overdose deaths from heroin and non-prescription synthetic opioids such as fentanyl went through the roof. Heroin and illicit synthetics accounted for nearly two-thirds of all opioid overdose deaths in 2016.

In the new study, published this week in the British Medical Journal, researchers examining the impact of the DEA policy shift found evidence that while the change indeed lowered prescribing rates for the opioids in question, it was also linked to an increase in illicit online sales of those drugs in Dark Web drug markets.

The researchers used software called DATACRYPTO to crawl encrypted Dark Web marketplaces where people can anonymously buy damned near anything, from drugs to guns to credit card numbers. DATACRYPTO harvested data on which drugs were for sale, their country of origin, and the number of customer comments on each seller's comments page. Researchers used that last figure as a proxy for how much of a drug that seller sold. They examined sales of prescription opioids, sedatives, stimulants, and steroids, as well as heroin. It was only with prescription opioids that they found a significant Dark Web sales bump.

Here's what they found: "The sale of prescription opioids through US cryptomarkets increased after the schedule change, with no statistically significant changes in sales of prescription sedatives, prescription steroids, prescription stimulants, or illicit opioids."

According to their data, prescription opioids doubled their market share of U.S. Dark Web drug sales thanks to the DEA policy change. By July 2016, opioids represented 13.7% of all drug sales in U.S. cryptomarkets, compared with a modeled estimate of 6.7% of all sales.

While the researchers were careful to not make claims of causation -- only correlation -- their conclusion speaks for itself: "The scheduling change in hydrocodone combination products coincided with a statistically significant, sustained increase in illicit trading of opioids through online US cryptomarkets. These changes were not observed for other drug groups or in other countries. A subsequent move was observed towards the purchase of more potent forms of prescription opioids, particularly oxycodone and fentanyl."

Not only is the DEA policy change linked to increased Dark Web opioid sales, it is also linked to a move toward more powerful, and thus more dangerous, opioids. The researchers noted that while fentanyl was the least purchased Dark Web opioid in the summer of 2014, it was the second most frequently purchased by the summer of 2016. Fentanyl killed as many people as prescription opioids that year.

This study -- one of the few that examines supply reduction (as opposed to demand reduction) as a means reducing drug use -- strongly suggests that supply-side interventions carry unintended consequences, especially the resort to more dangerous and more powerful substitutes. The study's authors refer to this effect as "the iron law of prohibition, whereby interventions to reduce supply, such as increased enforcement and changes to drug scheduling, lead to illicit markets dominated by higher potency products."

Perhaps better than restricting opioid prescriptions, which has deleterious impacts on the tens of millions of Americans suffering chronic pain, or other supply-side interventions, would be increased access to addiction treatment, as well as greatly expanded harm reduction measures to try to get people off opioids and keep them alive in the meantime.

Chronicle AM: SITSA Act Draws Opposition, Congress MedMJ Protections Advance, More... (6/15/18)

The Justice Department is once again likely to be barred from using its funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana, a broad coalition opposes the fast-moving SITSA Act, Portugal's parliament approves medical marijuana products, and more.

Congress is moving once again to bar the Justice Department from spending funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana.
Medical Marijuana

Senate Panel Approves Medical Marijuana Protections. The Senate Appropriations Committee on Thursday approved an amendment that shields legal medical marijuana operations from federal interference. The amendment to the Justice Department appropriations bill bars the department from using its funds to go after state-legal medical marijuana. A similar measure was approved in the House version of the bill.

Maine Supreme Court Rules Workmen's Compensation Doesn't Cover Medical Marijuana. In a ruling Thursday, the state Supreme Court held that employers do not have to pay for medical marijuana under the state's workers' compensation system. In a 5-2 ruling, the court held that federal law takes precedence and that making employers pay for medical marijuana would force them to violate federal law.

Drug Policy

Broad Coalition Opposes SITSA Act. A coalition of human rights, civil liberties, civil rights, religious, and drug policy reform groups have come out strongly in opposition to HR 2851, the Stop Importation and Trafficking of Synthetic Analogues (SITSA) Act of 2017. The fast-moving bill has already passed out of committee and awaits a House floor vote. The bill is an old-school drug war response to new psychoactive substances that relies heavily on the criminal justice system. "If passed, HR 2851 will broadly expand penalties for drug offenses, concentrate power within the Department of Justice, punish people who lack criminal intent, and overcriminalize certain behavior," the groups said in a letter released on Thursday. "The legislation attempts to address the very real problem of synthetic opioid overdoses in the United States, but we believe that its methods are misguided. Instead of punishing people who use drugs and low-level dealers, legislation should focus on expanding treatment opportunities and targeting the international drug trade."

Sentencing

Rhode Island House Passes Law Lengthening Prison Sentences for Dealers Who Sold Drugs in Fatal Overdoses. The House on Thursday approved "Kristen's Law," House Bill 7715, which creates a new crime of drug-related homicide and imposes penalties of up to life in prison for people who sell drugs linked to fatal drug overdoses. The bill now heads to the Senate.

International

Portugal Parliament Approves Marijuana-Based Medicines. The parliament on Friday overwhelmingly approved a bill to allow marijuana-based medicines, but only after earlier rejecting a proposal to allow patients to grow their own medicine. While Portugal decriminalized drug possession in 2001, it has lagged behind the US and other European countries when it comes to medical marijuana. The bill now goes to President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza to be signed into law.

Chronicle AM: Legal Pot Hiccups in California & Uruguay, US Calls Out Bangladesh Drug War Killings, More... (6/14/18)

Two legal marijuana markets are facing some growing pains, the State Department speaks out on Bangladeshi drug war killings, and more.

State Department Spokeswoman Heather Nauert calls out the Bangladeshis on drug war human rights violations. (state.gov)
Marijuana Policy

California Pot Shops Will Have Glut of Cheap Weed, Followed By Possible Shortages. Faced with a July 1 start date for new state-mandated safety standards for marijuana products, marijuana retailers are having to move piles of untested product left over from the state's unregulated grey market before that deadline. That means the likelihood of cheap weed deals in the next couple of weeks, but it also means there is likely to be a shortage of tested product in the early days of the new regime because of a lack of certified testing labs and state-authorized legal market providers.

Hemp

Senate Panel Advances Hemp Legalization. The Senate Agriculture Committee on Wednesday passed the 2018 farm bill. The bill includes hemp legalization legislation backed by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY), who argued in support of the measure during Wednesday's meeting. It now heads for a Senate floor vote.

Foreign Policy

US Expresses Concern Over Bangladesh Drug War Killings. The United States urged Bangladesh to meet its human rights obligations as it expressed concern over reports that more than 21,000 people have been arrested and 147 killed since the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina launched its anti-drug campaign a month ago. "We urge Bangladesh to conduct thorough and transparent investigations into all credible reports of extrajudicial killings," State Department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said in a statement. "While illegal drugs are a scourge across the world, Bangladesh should ensure its law enforcement respect human rights and that their conduct is consistent with international standards and Bangladesh's own constitution, which includes a presumption of innocence and the right to due process. We look to the Government of Bangladesh to fully meet its human rights obligations," she added. Bangladeshi Home Minister Asaduzzman Khan Kamal brushed the statement aside, insisting that "no extrajudicial killings took place in the ongoing anti-drug drive."

International

Five Years After Legalization, Uruguay Has Marijuana Supply Problems. The country legalized marijuana in 2013, but legal sales only began last year, and the path is still rocky. Pot is supposed to be sold in the nation's pharmacies, but so far, only 14 of about 1,200 have registered to participate, making the black market a more attractive option for some consumers. While Uruguay's law allows individuals to grow for themselves and collectives to grow for their members, the government is in charge of marijuana cultivation for sale at pharmacies, and it has so far licensed only two cultivators. The government sees the problem: "The demand is greater than our productive capacity," said Diego Olivera, head of the Uruguay National Drugs Council. "We have to address that challenge."

New Federal Bill Would Protect States' Experiments with Legal Marijuana [FEATURE]

A bipartisan group of legislators introduced a bill Thursday in both houses of Congress that would protect state marijuana legalization, medical marijuana, and decriminalization laws from federal interference. Under the measure, the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act), the Controlled Substances Act's (CSA) provisions federally criminalizing marijuana would no longer apply to anyone acting in compliance with state, territorial, or tribal laws allowing marijuana activities.

The bill would also clarify that marijuana business transactions done in compliance with state laws are not drug trafficking and that money made in state-legal marijuana operations is not the proceeds of an unlawful transaction. This provision would provide breathing room for financial institutions to provide services to the industry and give state-legal pot businesses the ability to claim standard business deductions at tax time.

The bill additionally removes industrial hemp from the list of controlled substances under the CSA.

It also retains criminal provisions of the CSA that bar the endangerment of life while manufacturing marijuana and the employment of people under 18 in drug operations. And it prohibits the distribution of marijuana at transportation safety facilities, such as truck stops and rest areas.

The bill is a direct response to Attorney General Jeff Sessions' avowedly aggressive approach to marijuana. The Obama administration dealt with state-legal marijuana by largely getting out of the way, but under Sessions, the Justice Department has rescinded Obama-era guidance to federal prosecutors that limited law enforcement efforts. A feared crackdown has not materialized, but the Justice Department's posture has created legal and business uncertainty, threatened public health and safety, and undermined state regulatory regimes.

While the bill is unlikely to pass this session, it allows its sponsors to stake out positions at the cutting edge of marijuana reform. Senate sponsor Cory Gardner (R-CO) is a Republican seeking to defend his seat this year in a state that legalized marijuana who has sparred with the Justice Department over the issue, while Senate sponsor Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), representing a state where legal marijuana sales are set to begin this summer, is considered a leading Democratic presidential contender.

"In 2012, Coloradans legalized marijuana at the ballot box and the state created an apparatus to regulate the legal marijuana industry. But because of the one-size-fits-all federal prohibition, state decisions like this put Colorado and other states at odds with the federal government," said Gardner. "The federal government is closing its eyes and plugging its ears while 46 states have acted. The bipartisan STATES Act fixes this problem once and for all by taking a states' rights approach to the legal marijuana question. The bipartisan, commonsense bill ensures the federal government will respect the will of the voters - whether that is legalization or prohibition - and not interfere in any states' legal marijuana industry."

"Outdated federal marijuana laws have perpetuated our broken criminal justice system, created barriers to research, and hindered economic development," said Warren. "States like Massachusetts have put a lot of work into implementing common-sense marijuana regulations - and they have the right to enforce their own marijuana policies. The federal government needs to get out of the business of outlawing marijuana."

House sponsor Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) doesn't need to burnish his marijuana reform credentials -- he is a co-founder of the Congressional Cannabis Caucus -- while House sponsor David Joyce (R-OH) is defending his seat in battleground Ohio, where medical marijuana sales are slated to begin this fall.

"For too long the senseless prohibition of marijuana has devastated communities, disproportionately impacting poor Americans and communities of color. Not to mention, it's also wasted resources and stifled critical medical research," said Blumenauer. "It's past time to put the power back in the hands of the people. Congress must right this wrong."

"We should trust the people of the states, like Ohio, who have voted to implement responsible common-sense regulations and requirements for the use, production, and sale of cannabis," said Joyce. "If the people of these states have decided to provide help for those veterans and others suffering from pain and other health issues, we should allow them access without government interference."

The legislation is backed not only by the usual suspects, such as the ACLU, Drug Policy Alliance, Marijuana Policy Project, National Cannabis Industry Association, and NORML, but also by the National Conference of State Legislatures. Also supporting the bipartisan effort are conservative groups, such as Americans for Prosperity, Americans for Tax Reform, and the Institute for Liberty, as well as banking groups including the Cooperative Credit Union Association, the Massachusetts Bankers Association, the Maine Credit Union League, and the Mountain West Credit Union Association.

Other marijuana reform bills have been introduced in this Congress, too, but like this one, they are likely doomed by Republican recalcitrance. Still, if the Democrats manage to take control of the House and/or the Senate in November, we could start to see some real progress made. Support for marijuana legalization has gone past the tipping point; now it's just inertia and intransigence blocking progress.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

One of the biggest police corruption cases in recent history ends with the head of the Baltimore Gun Trace Task Force headed for prison, deputies get in trouble for drugs in the jails, an Atlanta cop gets caught up in a drug raid, and more.

In Franklinton, Louisiana, a Washington Parish sheriff's deputy was arrested last Friday for allegedly helping inmates smuggle drugs into the parish jail. Deputy Joe Wayne Sandifer is accused of knowing about drug use by inmate trusties and hiding drugs for them in his department-issued vehicle. Police found drugs when they searched his vehicle. He is charged with possession of marijuana, activities regarding contraband in a penal institution and malfeasance in office.

In Colorado Springs, Colorado, an El Paso County sheriff's deputy was arrested Sunday for trying to bring drugs into the county jail during his shift. Deputy Steven D'Agustino faces charges of introducing contraband in the first degree and official misconduct. The five-year veteran now resides at his former place of employment.

In College Park, Georgia, an Atlanta police officer was arrested Monday during a raid on a home where people were suspected of dealing drugs. Officer Iris Rowe was in the home when College Park Special Operations Teams hit the apartment looking for two named suspects. Police arrested all three and attempted to question Rowe about involvement in drug activity, but she declined to answer questions. Police seized drugs valued at about $30,000 and $8,000 in cash in the house and found more drugs and an AR-15 in the trunk of Rowe's car. She faces three drug charges, including possession with intent to distribute marijuana, possession of a controlled substance and possession of illegal drugs in a drug-free zone. She was placed on leave from the Atlanta Police Department pending the investigation.

In Baltimore, the former head of the Baltimore Police Gun Trace Task Force was sentenced last Thursday to 25 years in federal prison for using the task force, which was supposed to take guns off the street, to steal and resell guns, rob drug dealers, and plant false evidence. Sergeant Wayne Jenkins was among six of his colleagues who pleaded guilty in the case.

Medical Marijuana Update

Regulators in Michigan and Ohio slow things down, the New York Assembly approves medical marijuana for opioid addiction, and more.

Michigan

Michigan Regulators Leave Medical Marijuana Companies Hanging for Another Month. The state Medical Marijuana Licensing Board announced last Friday that it was canceling its meeting set for Monday, leaving 17 medical marijuana companies in the lurch. The board will not meet again for another month. It was supposed to issue permits to four cultivation operations, a transport company, a dispensary and a processor, and it was also scheduled to consider prequalification for licensure for another 10 businesses. So far, 212 businesses have applied for licenses; none have been issued.

New York

New York Assembly Approves Medical Marijuana for Opioid Addiction. The Assembly last Wednesday overwhelmingly approved a bill that would let medical marijuana be used to treat opioid addiction. The bill is A 9016. A Senate companion measure has been stuck in the Health Committee since January.

Ohio

Ohio Medical Marijuana Sales Delayed. The state Department of Commerce announced last Wednesday that patients would not be able to buy medical marijuana on September 8, the anticipated start date for the program. Sales may not begin for weeks after that, and supply is likely to be initially limited.

South Carolina

South Carolina Voters Approve Medical Marijuana Question on Democratic Ballot. Voters in the state's Democratic primary Tuesday overwhelmingly approved a non-binding question asking if they supported passing a law to allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to patients. The question passed with 81% of the vote. While medical marijuana bills have moved in the legislature, none has yet passed.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Chronicle AM: St. Louis Ends Small MJ Prosecutions, House Passes Opioid Package, More... (6/13/18)

St. Louis prosecutors will no longer go after people with less than 100 grams of marijuana, a Delaware legislator amends her legalization bill to address concerns, the House passes an opioid package, the Canadian federal government rejects some Senate marijuana amendments, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Delaware Legalization Bill Amended. State Rep. Helene Keeley (D-Wilmington) has filed an amendment to her legalization bill, House Bill 110, aimed at addressing concerns around regulations and public safety. The amendment would more tightly regulate legal marijuana production and distribution and prohibit products that look like candy or cartoon characters. The amendment also clarifies employer protections and sets aside 10% of tax revenues to pay for drugged driving enforcement. The bill has already passed committee votes and now awaits a House floor vote.

St. Louis Ends Marijuana Prosecutions for Less Than 100 Grams. St. Louis Circuit Attorney Kim Gardner announced Tuesday that her office will stop prosecuting marijuana possession cases involving less than 3 ½ ounces (100 grams) of the weed. "Effective immediately we will no longer issue possession of marijuana cases under 100 grams as the lead charge!" Gardner wrote. Gardner said her staff would also begin reviewing and dismissing pending pot cases.

Medical Marijuana

South Carolina Voters Approve Medical Marijuana Question On Democratic Ballot. Voters in the state's Democratic primary overwhelmingly approved a non-binding question asking if they supported passing a law to allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to patients. The question passed with 81% of the vote. While medical marijuana bills have moved in the legislature, none has yet passed.

Heroin and Prescription Opioids

House Passes Package of 25 Bills Addressing Opioid Crisis. The House on Tuesday approved a package of 25 bills that nibble at the edge of the nation's opioid-related public health crisis. The bills range from addressing the disposal of opioid medications after a patient's death to encouraging overdose awareness in hospital emergency rooms to raising awareness of synthetic opioids and more. For a complete list of the bills and what they do, click on the title link.

Harm Reduction

Delaware Law Giving First Responders Immunity from Lawsuits for Administering Opioid Overdose Reversal Drug Goes into Effect. Gov. John Carney (D) on Tuesday signed into law Senate Bill 147, which provides immunity from lawsuits for public safety personnel for trying to save lives by administering Naloxone. Paramedics and police had previously been granted immunity, and laypersons also have immunity under the state's Good Samaritan law. This bill specifies that volunteer firefighters and other emergency responders will also have immunity.

International

Canadian Federal Government Rejects Some Senate Marijuana Legalization Bill Amendments. The federal government has said it accepts some 26 technical proposed amendments to the C-45 legalization bill but rejects amendments to allow provinces to bar home cultivation and prohibit producers from handing out branded merchandise. "We have looked carefully at all of the amendments that have been brought forward and today we respectfully submit to the Senate the amendments that we've accepted, and the ones that we haven't," Health Minister Ginette Petitpas Taylor told reporters Wednesday. Now, it will be up to the Senate to accept the government's position. If not, the legislative haggling could continue for some time.

Chronicle AM: STATES Act Gets New Backers, Federal Hemp Bill to Be Debated, More... (6/12/18)

The week-old STATES Act picks up a pair of new cosponsors, Mitch McConnell's hemp bill will be debated on Wednesday, Mexican human rights group ask the ICC to investigate drug war crimes by the military, and more.

hemp fields (votehemp.com)
Marijuana Policy

Alaska Senators Sign Up to Back STATES Act. Alaska US senators Dan Sullivan (R) and Lisa Murkowski (R) have added their names as cosponsors of the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act), which was introduced last week. The bill would make the marijuana prohibition provisions of the Controlled Substances Act inapplicable in states that have their own laws allowing the production, sale, possession, and consumption of marijuana.

Hemp

Federal Bill to Legalize Hemp Up for Debate on Wednesday. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell's (R-KY) Hemp Farming Act of 2018 (S. 2667) will be debated in the Senate on Wednesday. The bill legalizes industrial hemp production and removes hemp from the Controlled Substances Act.

International

Mexican Human Rights Groups Call for International Criminal Court Investigation of Military Drug War Atrocities. Human rights organizations called Monday for the International Criminal Court (ICC) to investigate abuses committed by the Mexican military in a crackdown on drug crime in Chihuahua state. The rights groups provided a dossier to the ICC documenting slayings, torture, rapes, and forced disappearances involving at least 121 victims during a period between 2008 and 2010. This is the third case the human rights groups have asked the ICC to open. Earlier, they presented cases from Coahuila and Baja California, but the ICC has yet to open a preliminary investigation on any of them.

Australia NSW Festival Drug Dog Policy Challenged. A new policy by New South Wales policy that denies entry to music festivals to anyone "indicated on" by a drug dog -- even if a search reveals no drugs -- is being challenged by the NSW Greens. The Greens's Sniff Off campaign sought an injunction last Friday in the NSW Supreme Court to try to block police from carrying out the new practice. The court rejected that effort, saying the issue was "hypothetical," but now, after some festival goers were denied entry this past weekend, the Greens plan to challenge the policy anew.

Chronicle AM: Mayors, Governors Call for Protecting Marijuana Legalization, MI MedMJ Delays, More... (6/11/18)

A dozen state governors call on Congress to protect legal marijuana states, a coalition of mayors does something similar, Michigan regulators are leaving medical marijuana businesses hanging out to dry, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Governors Call on Congress to Pass STATES Act. A dozen governors have signed a letter to Congress urging it to pass the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act). Introduced in both the House and the Senate last week, the bill would protect states with legalized marijuana from federal interference. The list includes the governors of most of the adult legalization states-- California, Oregon, Colorado, Alaska, Nevada, Washington and Massachusetts -- as well as Democratic governors Phil Murphy of New Jersey, Andrew Cuomo of New York and Tom Wolfe of Pennsylvania, as well as Republican governors Larry Hogan of Maryland and, somewhat surprisingly, Doug Burgum of North Dakota.

Coalition of Mayors to Urge Congress to Protect States With Legal Marijuana. Denver Mayor Michael Hancock (D) announced Sunday at the annual meeting of the US Conference of Mayors that he will lead a coalition of mayors from around the country in a bid to push Congress to act to protect states where marijuana or medical marijuana is legal. "With 46 states having some form of legalization, the reality is legal marijuana is coming to a city near you. As mayors of cities that have successfully implemented and managed this new industry, we have hands-on experience that can help Congress take the right steps to support other local governments as they prepare to enter this new frontier," Hancock said in an announcement of the coalition. "We all will face common challenges when it comes to legalizing marijuana, and those challenges need federal solutions so implementation can be done smoothly, safely and effectively." Other founding members of the coalition are Mayor Heidi Williams of Thornton, Colorado, as well as mayors Mark Farrell (San Francisco), Jenny Durkan (Seattle), Libby Schaaf (Oakland), Tedd Wheeler (Portland), Christopher Cabaldon (West Sacramento), Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) and Carolyn Goodman (Las Vegas).

Medical Marijuana

Michigan Regulators Leave Medical Marijuana Companies Hanging for Another Month. The state Medical Marijuana Licensing Board announced last Friday that it was canceling its meeting set for Monday, leaving 17 medical marijuana companies in the lurch. The board will not meet again for another month. It was supposed to issue permits to four cultivation operations, a transport company, a dispensary and a processor, and it was also scheduled to consider prequalification for licensure for another 10 businesses. So far, 212 businesses have applied for licenses; none have been issued.

International

Danish Political Parties Call for Legal Marijuana Sales. Amidst another police crackdown on the Pusher Street market in Copenhagen's Christiania, five political parties are calling for a path toward legalization. One of the parties, the libertarian Liberal Alliance, is a coalition partner in the country's conservative government. The other four -- Alternative, the Red Green Alliance, the Socialist People's Party, and the Social Liberal Party -- are in the opposition. The parties were set to meet Monday to discuss pathways to legalization.

Chronicle AM: Trump Signals Support for MJ Bill, Canada Senate Passes Legalization, More... (6/8/18)

Trump says he will likely support a bill to protect legal marijuana states, Canada's Senate approves marijuana legalization, Minneapolis ends low-level pot stings, and more.

President Trump said he would "probably" support a bill that would end federal marijuanaprohibition in states where it is legal.
Marijuana Policy

Trump Says He Will Likely Support Gardner-Warren Marijuana Bill. President Trump said Friday that he will "probably" support a bipartisan, bicameral bill filed Thursday by Sens. Cory Gardner (R-CO) and Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) and Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and David Joyce (R-OH) that would end federal marijuana prohibition in states where it is legal. The measure is the Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States Act (STATES Act). "I support Sen. Gardner," Trump said when asked about the bill. "I know exactly what he's doing. We're looking at it. But I probably will end up supporting that, yes."

New Jersey Democrats File New Marijuana Legalization Bill. State Senate President Steve Sweeney (D) and state Sen. Nick Scutari (D) have filed a new marijuana legalization bill just weeks ahead of June 30 budget deadline. Gov. Phil Murphy, a legalization supporter, is counting on $60 billion in marijuana tax revenue in his fiscal year 2019 budget. Under the bill, adults could possess, buy, use or transport an ounce or less of marijuana. Towns would retain the right to create their own ordinances governing sales, with a 180-day window to bar sales. The bill envisages tax rates from 10% to 25% over four years. It's not yet available on the legislative website.

Minneapolis Ends Low-Level Pot Stings, Cites Racial Disparities. At the request of Mayor Jacob Frey (DFL), Minneapolis police will quit staging stings targeting low-level marijuana sellers. The move came just hours after revelations that 46 of 47 people arrested in the stings were black. The charges against those people are being dismissed. "I believe strongly that marijuana should be a lowest-level enforcement priority and that it should be fully legalized at the state level," Frey said in a statement Thursday. "The fact that racial disparities are so common nationwide in the enforcement of marijuana laws is one of the reasons I support full legalization."

Heroin and Prescription Opioids

West Virginia Opioid Reduction Act Now in Effect. As of Thursday, the state Department of Health and Human Resources has begun implementation of the Opioid Reduction Act. It sets limitations on opioid prescriptions and allows patients to place a directive in their medical file declining in advance treatments involving opioid medications. Under the new law, initial opioid prescriptions are limited to a seven-day supply of the lowest effective dose. In hospital emergency rooms, doctors can only prescribe a four-day supply.

International

Canadian Senate Approves Marijuana Legalization Bill. The Senate Thursday night approved the C-45 marijuana legalization bill, but only after heavily amending it. The bill must now go back to the House, which must decide which to keep and which to throw out, before sending it back to the Senate for final approval. Many of the amendments are technical, but some are significant. One amendment would allow provinces to prohibit home cultivation of cannabis if they so choose, rather than accept the four marijuana plants per household allowed under the bill. Another would impose stringent restrictions on advertising by marijuana companies.

Chronicle AM: Federal Legal Marijuana Bill Filed, OH MedMJ Sales Delayed, More... (6/7/18)

A bipartisan bill that would make marijuana federally legal in states that have legalized it has been filed, a key GOP committee chair blocks votes on marijuana amendments, the New York Assembly approves medical marijuana for opioid addiction and sealing past pot convictions, and more.

Marijuana Policy

Cory Gardner, Elizabeth Warren File Bill to Make Marijuana Federally Legal in Legal Marijuana States. Two legal marijuana state US senators, Cory Gardner (R-CO) and Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) on Thursday filed a bill that would federally legalize marijuana in states that have legalized it. Marijuana would remain federally illegal in those states that have not legalized it. The bill, which does not yet have a number, is the STATES Act (Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States).

House Rules Committee Blocks Votes on Marijuana Policy. One of the biggest roadblocks to drug law reform in Congress has struck again. Rep. Pete Sessions (R-TX), chairman of the House Rules Committee, blocked four marijuana amendments from going to a House floor vote. Three of them related to veterans' ability to use medical marijuana, while the fourth was about water rights for marijuana and hemp growers.

New York Assembly Approves Sealing Marijuana Convictions. The Assembly on Wednesday approved A 2142, which would seal marijuana convictions for individuals who have been unjustly and unconstitutionally arrested for simple possession of marijuana in public view. Over the past 20 years, more than 800,000 New Yorkers have been arrested on such charges. A Senate companion measure has passed out of the Codes Committee and is currently before the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Medical Marijuana

New York Assembly Approves Medical Marijuana for Opioid Addiction. The Assembly on Wednesday overwhelmingly approved a bill that would let medical marijuana be used to treat opioid addiction. The bill is A 9016. A Senate companion measure has been stuck in the Health Committee since January.

Ohio Medical Marijuana Sales Delayed. The state Department of Commerce announced Wednesday that patients would not be able to buy medical marijuana on September 8, the anticipated start date for the program. Sales may not begin for weeks after that, and supply is likely to be initially limited.

International

Canada Senate Set to Pass Marijuana Legalization Bill Today. The Canadian Senate was expected to give final approval to the C-45 marijuana legalization bill Thursday. Because the bill has been heavily amended in the Senate, it will have to go back to the House for approval of those changes. After that, the implementation of marijuana legalization will begin.

By Month's End, Oklahoma Should Be the Newest Medical Marijuana State

This article was written in collaboration with Alternet, and was originally published here.

One of the reddest of red states is set to go green later this month. Voters in Oklahoma will go to the polls on the 26th to decide whether to support the Question 778 medical marijuana initiative, and all indications are that it will win.

Medical marijuana -- coming soon to the Sooner State? (Saundra Yruel/Drug Policy Alliance)
The state's Sooner Poll showed support for the initiative at 57.5% last week. That's down slightly from January when the same poll had support at 61%, but still enough to pull off a victory at the polls later this month, especially given the limited organized opposition to it so far.

One opposition group, Oklahomans Against 788, has a Facebook page, but according to state campaign finance reports, has only collected a paltry $755 -- and from only two donors. The two political action committees supporting the initiative,  Oklahomans for Health and Yes on 778, on the other hand, have raised more than $31,000 and have more than $9,000 in the bank for media buys this month. (Oklahoma isn't a huge media market.)

Newly emerging opposition from conservative religious figures is probably too late to make a difference, but a group calling itself Oklahoma Faith Leaders, whose head is a former consultant to Oklahoma Republican US Senator James Lankford, enlisted Lankford to issue a press release last week warning that the initiative would be "harmful to the social fabric of Oklahoma."

Lankford went on to blame outside agitators with hidden agendas: "This state question is being sold to Oklahomans as a compassionate medical marijuana bill by outside groups that actually want access to recreational marijuana," Lankford added. "Most of us have seen first-hand the damage done to families and our communities from recreational marijuana use."

It's unclear just what "damage done" Lankford was referring to, but the initiative does not legalize recreational marijuana, and if any "outside groups" are involved, it is certainly not evident from the campaign finance reports.

Instead of sending Oklahoma on the path to perdition, passing the initiative would bring the state up to speed with most of the rest of the country. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia allow medical marijuana, while another 15 states have laws allowing the use of CBD cannabis oil for medicinal purposes.

The Oklahoma initiative is a full-fledged medical marijuana measure, which would allow patients to grow their own medicine, create a system of licensed dispensaries, cultivation, and processing facilities; set taxes at a relatively low 7%, and bar localities from using zoning laws to block dispensaries (although they wouldn't be allowed within 1,000 feet of a school).

It's the culmination of a long, arduous effort to legalize medical marijuana in the Sooner state. For years, the Republican-dominated state legislature has refused to move on the issue, instead grudgingly approving only clinical trials of CBD cannabis oil for minors suffering from epilepsy in 2015. The following year the legislature removed the age cap and expanded the trials to include other diseases and conditions.  But it has refused to go any further, including this year, when a much more limited medical marijuana bill, Senate Bill 1120, died in March for lack of support.

The initiative itself has faced a similarly arduous path. Originally aimed at the November 2016 ballot, the measure successfully gathered the required signatures in the summer of 2016, and they were verified in September 2016. But the date of signature submission, a rewrite of the ballot title required by state officials, and the court battle that followed meant the measure didn't make the 2016 ballot. The Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled in favor of Oklahomans for Health in March 2017, and Gov. Mary Fallin (R) nine months later proclaimed that the initiative would appear on the June 2018 primary election ballot.

That's the first time since 2005 that an Oklahoma governor selected a date different from the general election for an initiative. Now, despite it being an off-off-year primary election, Oklahomans will finally have a chance to join the ranks of the medical marijuana states. But they're going to have to actually go out and vote to make it happen.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Whoa! It's prison and jail guards gone wild, plus some New York state cops get themselves in trouble. Let's get to it:

In Wewahitchka, Florida, a state prison guard was arrested last Monday after being caught smuggling drugs in her bra and tampon. Officer Julia Eagerton voluntarily surrendered nine bundles of synthetic cannabinoids weighing 334 grams when confronted by security staff at the prison. She is charged with introducing contraband into a state correctional institution, possession of narcotics and unlawful compensation.

In Pendleton, Indiana, a county jail guard was arrested last Tuesday after being caught with drug contraband on him when he reported to work. Guard Joshua Myers faces a misdemeanor charge of trafficking with an inmate and a felony charge of official misconduct.

In Jonesborough, Tennessee, a Washington County jail guard was arrested last Friday after officers intercepted a package he carried with him as he went to work. Randy Burke was carrying methamphetamine, suboxone, and subutec. It's not clear what charges he faces.

In Snow Hill, North Carolina, a state prison guard was arrested last Friday on multiple drug charges after he was found with drug contraband on him. Antwan Hamilton, 23, is charged with six counts of Possession of Schedule III Controlled Substance, one count of Possession with Intent to Sell/Deliver Controlled Substance, and one count of Possession of Controlled Substance on Prison Premises.

In Mineola, New York, two Nassau County police officers were arrested Tuesday on unspecified drug charges. Officers Erik Skoglund and Karen Ernst were among nine people arrested on drug charges following a grand jury investigation. They were given desk appearance tickets and released.

In Buffalo, New York, a former Niagara Falls police officer was sentenced last Wednesday to three years' probation for letting her boyfriend stash cocaine at her home and accompanying him as he went about his cocaine selling business. Former Officer Stephanie Costanzo, 29. She pleaded guilty in February to managing a drug-involved premise. Her maximum recommended sentence was six months in prison.

Medical Marijuana Update

The City of Brotherly Love gets its first dispensary, a Florida judge has blocked a state ban on patients smoking medical marijuana, Colorado's governor signs a medical marijuana in school bill, but vetoes a medical marijuana for autism one, and more.

Colorado

Colorado Governor Signs Medical Marijuana at School Bill. Gov. John Hickenlooper (D) has signed into law House Bill 18-1286, which will allow school nurses to administer medical marijuana to students with medical marijuana patient cards. Hickenlooper said that bill would expand current law to "allow school personnel to administer medical marijuana in a non-smokable form to students qualifying for medical marijuana use."

Colorado Governor Vetoes Medical Marijuana for Autism, Wants More Study. Gov. John Hickenlooper (D) on Tuesday vetoed House Bill 18-1263, which would have allowed people with autism spectrum disorders to qualify as medical marijuana patients. "While we are very sympathetic with families advocating medical marijuana (MMJ) as a safer and more effective treatment for their children, we cannot ignore such overwhelming concerns from the medical community," Hickenlooper said in the veto letter. He went on to say, "In vetoing this bill, we do so on sole concern that medical efficacy on MMJ to treat ASD has yet to be fully studied by medical professionals and scientific experts entrusted to this role at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE)." Hickenlooper then signed an executive order directing CDPHE to study the efficacy of medical marijuana for children with autism.

Florida

Florida Judge Halts State's Effort to Block Patients Smoking Their Medicine. A Leon County circuit court judge on Tuesday lifted an automatic stay on her ruling that the state's ban on patient access to the smokable form of medical marijuana is unconstitutional. The state has until Monday to begin moving to make smokable medical marijuana available to patients.

Louisiana

Louisiana Governor Signs Second Medical Marijuana Expansion Bill. Gov. John Bel Edwards (D) has signed into law House Bill 579, which adds Parkinson's, glaucoma, severe muscle spasms, chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder to the 10 conditions currently qualifying for medical marijuana. Days earlier, he signed into law a second bill that added autism to the list of qualifying disorders.

Michigan

Michigan Extends Deadline for Dispensaries to Get Licensed. The Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs announced last Wednesday that a June 15 deadline for operating dispensaries to get licensed under the state's new medical marijuana law will be extended to September 15. "This 92-day extension will allow the bureau and the board enough time to investigate and authorize facility operator licenses in order to make sure that access to medical marihuana is maintained," the agency said.

New York

New York Bill Would Allow CBD Cannabis Oil to Be Used Instead of Opioids for Pain. State Sen. George Amedore (R) last Thursday filed Senate Bill 8820, which would allow the use of CBD cannabis oil in place of opioids. Amedore is co-chair of the Senate Task Force on Opioid and Heroin Addiction and said that the evidence is clear marijuana is less harmful and addictive than opioid painkillers.

Pennsylvania

Philadelphia Gets First Dispensary. The City of Brotherly Love has seen its first medical marijuana dispensary open its doors. The Restore Integrative Wellness Center in Frankford opened last Wednesday.

[For extensive information about the medical marijuana debate, presented in a neutral format, visit MedicalMarijuana.ProCon.org.]

Chronicle AM: Bangladesh Drug War Killings Draw UN Rebuke, Fed Pot Busts Way Down, More... (6/6/18)

The president commutes the life sentence of a drug offender, Michigan voters will decide whether to legalize weed in November, the UN's human rights head criticizes Bangladeshi drug war killings, and more.

There has been less of this going on in recent years, the USSC reports. (dea.gov)
Marijuana Policy

Federal Marijuana Cases Are Way Down. Federal marijuana cases have declined by nearly half (45.8%) since fiscal year 2013, falling 25% between 2015 and 2016, according to a new report from the US Sentencing Commission (USSC). There were 3,854 federal marijuana cases in 2016, the USSC said. But 2016 was still the Obama administration; there are no figures yet on whether federal pot busts went up last year under the Trump administration.

Michigan GOP Punts on Pot Vote, Voters Will Decide at the Polls. Republican lawmakers did not take the opportunity to pass a marijuana legalization initiative by Tuesday night's legislative deadline, even though there had been serious discussion of doing so in a bid to depress voter turnout in November. Now, the measure will go directly to the voters.

Medical Marijuana

Colorado Governor Vetoes Medical Marijuana for Autism, Wants More Study. Gov. John Hickenlooper (D) on Tuesday vetoed House Bill 18-1263, which would have allowed people with autism spectrum disorders to qualify as medical marijuana patients. "While we are very sympathetic with families advocating medical marijuana (MMJ) as a safer and more effective treatment for their children, we cannot ignore such overwhelming concerns from the medical community," Hickenlooper said in the veto letter. He went on to say, "In vetoing this bill, we do so on sole concern that medical efficacy on MMJ to treat ASD has yet to be fully studied by medical professionals and scientific experts entrusted to this role at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE)." Hickenlooper then signed an executive order directing CDPHE to study the efficacy of medical marijuana for children with autism.

Florida Judge Halts State's Effort to Block Patients Smoking Their Medicine. A Leon County circuit court judge on Tuesday lifted an automatic stay on her ruling that the state's ban on patient access to the smokable form of medical marijuana is unconstitutional. The state has until Monday to begin moving to make smokable medical marijuana available to patients.

Hemp

US Senate Unanimously Approves Hemp Resolution. For the third year in a row, the Senate has approved a resolution recognizing "the growing economic potential of industrial hemp" as well as its "historical relevance." The resolution is non-binding, but Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) is pushing an actual hemp legalization bill this year. He has said he intends to attach it to the larger farm bill expected to soon be taken up by Congress.

Pardons and Commutations

Trump Commutes Life Sentence of Grandma Whose Cause Was Championed By Kim Kardashian. President Trump on Wednesday commuted the life sentence of Alice Marie Johnson, a 63-year-old grandmother who has already served 21 years of a life sentence for a first-time drug trafficking offense. The move came after reality TV star Kim Kardashian met with Trump to plead for Johnson's release.

International

UN Human Rights Head Says Bangladesh Drug War Killings Must Stop UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein on Wednesday condemned the extrajudicial killing of suspected drug offenders and urged Bangladeshi authorities to immediately halt such human rights violations and bring the perpetrators to justice. The death toll has now risen to at least 130 since the government's crackdown began on May 15. "I am gravely concerned that such a large number of people have been killed, and that the Government reaction has been to assure the public that none of these individuals were "innocent" but that mistakes can occur in an anti-narcotics drive,"High Commissioner Zeid said. "Such statements are dangerous and indicative of a total disregard for the rule of law. Every person has the right to life. People do not lose their human rights because they use or sell drugs. The presumption of innocence and the right to due process must be at the forefront of any efforts to tackle crimes." Meanwhile, some 175 non-governmental organizations have signed onto a petition from the International Drug Policy Consortium urging two other UN entities, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) to condemn the killings.

 

Chronicle AM: CO Gov. Vetoes Pot Tasting Rooms, WV First Responders Get Naloxone, More... (6/5/18)

Colorado's governor vetoes a pot tasting room bill and signs a medical marijuana in schools bill, Canada's legalization bill overcomes a last-ditch attempt to block it, and more.

West Virginia first responders will now be carrying the opioid overdose reversal drug naloxone. (PA Health Dept.)
Marijuana Policy

Colorado Governor Vetoes Marijuana "Tasting Rooms" Bill. Gov. John Hickenlooper (D) has vetoed House Bill 18-1258, which would have allowed customers at marijuana retailers to consume edibles or vape on premises. Hickenlooper said the bill violated Amendment 64, which said marijuana consumption could not be done "openly" or "publicly." Hickenlooper also cited fears of stoned driving.

Medical Marijuana

Colorado Governor Signs Medical Marijuana at School Bill. Gov. John Hickenlooper (D) has signed into law House Bill 18-1286, which will allow school nurses to administer medical marijuana to students with medical marijuana patient cards. Hickenlooper said that bill would expand current law to "allow school personnel to administer medical marijuana in a non-smokable form to students qualifying for medical marijuana use."

Harm Reduction

West Virginia Begins Statewide Distribution of Naloxone to First Responders. The state Department of Health and Human Services announced Tuesday that it is beginning the distribution of the opioid overdose reversal drug to first responders. Naloxone is going out to the state police, the fire marshal's office, and emergency medical service providers, with eight high priority counties also being allocated additional doses.

 

 

 

 

International

Canada's Conservatives Thwarted in Bid to Block Legalization Bill. An attempt by Conservative senators to slow down the marijuana legalization bill failed on Monday night on 50-29 vote. Sen. Leo Housakos (C) had filed an amendment to delay passage until the government releases a report on how it will deal with marijuana-related border issues. Now, the bill is set for a final Senate vote Thursday.

 

 

Chronicle AM: Gallup: Pot Use "Morally Acceptable," Bangladeshi Drug War Killings, More... (6/4/18)

Two polls illustrate the rising social acceptability of marijuana, Louisiana's medical marijuana program expands, the Bangladeshi drug war could be a cover for political assassinations, and more.

Most people don't think people who smoke pot are moral lepers, a new Gallup poll finds. (Creative Commons)
Marijuana Policy

Gallup Poll: Two-Thirds Say Consuming Marijuana "Morally Acceptable." A large majority of Americans -- 65% -- say consuming marijuana is "morally acceptable." An even larger majority -- 78% -- say drinking alcohol is "morally acceptable." This is the first time Gallup has asked the question.

Youth Support for Marijuana Legalization at All-Time High, Poll Finds. The annual Monitoring the Future survey of secondary school students finds that 49% of 12th graders supported marijuana legalization last year, a figure the survey called a "historic high." Just a decade earlier, only 29% favored legalization, but support has grown every year since then, except for a one-point downward blip in 2015.

Medical Marijuana

Louisiana Governor Signs Second Medical Marijuana Expansion Bill. Gov. John Bel Edwards (D) has signed into law House Bill 579, which adds Parkinson's, glaucoma, severe muscle spasms, chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder to the 10 conditions currently qualifying for medical marijuana. Days earlier, he signed into law a second bill that added autism to the list of qualifying disorders.

International

Bangladeshi Drug War Used to Hide Political Assassinations. The death toll from the Bangladeshi government's bloody drug crackdown has risen to 120, and claims are coming that some of the victims are not drug users or dealers at all, but political opponents of the government. One case is that of Habibur Rahman, who police said had been killed in a gunfight with officers, but his family said Rahman, an activist with the leading opposition party, was last seen being taken away from a local mosque by men thought to be plainclothes police officers. "He was neither a drug seller nor a drug addict. It was because he was involved in politics against the government and protested about land affairs," said a relative who declined to be named for fear of retaliation.

British Home Office Scotches Plans for Glasgow Safe Injection Site. The British Home Office has refused to approve a safe injection site in Glasgow -- even though it acknowledges they are an effective harm reduction intervention. The Home Office said there is no legal framework for setting up safe injection sites and there are no plans to amend the law to do so.

You'll Never Believe What Country Just Enacted a Massive, Meaningful Drug Reform

For years, Iran has been one of the world's leading executioners of drug offenders, with hundreds of people hung from the gallows annually for drug smuggling and trafficking. But in a remarkable turnabout, that is no longer the case.

Executions for drug offenses have come to an almost total halt in Iran. (IHR)
After the Iranian parliament amended the country's drug laws in November 2017, drug executions have all but halted, according to a new report from Iran Human Rights (IHR). The non-profit group found that only one person had been executed for a drug offense this year in Iran, compared to 112 during the same period last year and nearly 500 for all of 2017.

That's a 99% reduction in the resort to the death penalty for drugs in the Islamic Republic.

The changes to Iran's drug laws didn't remove the death penalty from the books -- it remains one of 33 countries, including the United States, that mete out the ultimate punishment for drug offenses -- but it dramatically raised the quantities of drugs needed to merit the death penalty.

Under the old law, being caught with a little more than an ounce (30 grams) of drugs such as cocaine or heroin could bring a death sentence. Now, it takes nearly 4 ½ pounds (2 kilograms). Similarly, for plant-based drugs such as cannabis and opium, the death penalty threshold has increased ten-fold, from 5 kilograms (11 pounds) to 50 kilograms (110 pounds).

The death penalty can also be imposed for certain other drug offenses where quantity is not the issue, for example, the use of a minor in a drug trafficking operations, carrying or using firearms while committing drug-related crimes, having a prior death penalty or prison sentence longer than 15 years, or being the "leader" of a drug trafficking group.

The one man executed for drug offenses in Iran this year, identified as Kiomars Nosuhi, was convicted of being a "leader" of a drug trafficking group.

Bordering Afghanistan, the world's primary supplier of raw opium and heroin, Iran has for decades waged war on drug smugglers, with thousands of police and soldiers killed in the struggle. While opium smoking was a traditional Iranian pastime, the country now has one of the world's highest addiction rates, with heroin largely replacing opium. In recognition of that reality, in the past decade, Iranian officials have switched from harsh punishments of drug users to emphasizing drug treatment and harm reduction. The end of the reflexive resort to the death penalty for drugs marks another step in the country's march toward a more progressive policy response.

While human rights groups applaud the dramatic decline in drug executions, they continue to express concern over the way the Iranian judicial system responds to drugs.

"We welcome the significant reduction in the use of the death penalty and hope that this trend will continue towards complete abolition," said IHR spokesperson Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam. "However, we have several serious concerns regarding the process of implementation of the new amendment, including bribery in the judicial system, insufficient capacity to handle a large number of cases, and lack of a monitoring organ overlooking the process."

And then there are the tens of thousands of drug offenders filling Iran's prisons. The country has more than 250,000 people behind bars, 50% to 70% for drug offenses. The Islamic Republic may not be running the gallows at full tilt anymore for drugs, but incarceration remains a key element of Iranian drug policy. Still, Iran has taken an important step forward.

Drug War Issues

Criminal JusticeAsset Forfeiture, Collateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Court Rulings, Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, 2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, 2016 Drug War Killings, 2017 Drug War Killings, Arrests, Eradication, Informants, Interdiction, Lowest Priority Policies, Police Corruption, Police Raids, Profiling, Search and Seizure, SWAT/Paramilitarization, Task Forces, Undercover Work), Probation or Parole, Prosecution, Reentry/Rehabilitation, Sentencing (Alternatives to Incarceration, Clemency and Pardon, Crack/Powder Cocaine Disparity, Death Penalty, Decriminalization, Defelonization, Drug Free Zones, Mandatory Minimums, Rockefeller Drug Laws, Sentencing Guidelines)CultureArt, Celebrities, Counter-Culture, Music, Poetry/Literature, Television, TheaterDrug UseParaphernalia, ViolenceIntersecting IssuesCollateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Violence, Border, Budgets/Taxes/Economics, Business, Civil Rights, Driving, Economics, Education (College Aid), Employment, Environment, Families, Free Speech, Gun Policy, Human Rights, Immigration, Militarization, Money Laundering, Pregnancy, Privacy (Search and Seizure, Drug Testing), Race, Religion, Science, Sports, Women's IssuesMarijuana PolicyGateway Theory, Hemp, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Marijuana Industry, Medical MarijuanaMedicineMedical Marijuana, Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug Prevention, Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C, Harm Reduction (Methadone & Other Opiate Maintenance, Needle Exchange, Overdose Prevention, Pill Testing, Safe Injection Sites)Source and Transit CountriesAndean Drug War, Coca, Hashish, Mexican Drug War, Opium ProductionSpecific DrugsAlcohol, Ayahuasca, Cocaine (Crack Cocaine), Ecstasy, Heroin, Ibogaine, ketamine, Khat, Kratom, Marijuana (Gateway Theory, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Medical Marijuana, Hashish), Methamphetamine, New Synthetic Drugs (Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Stimulants), Nicotine, Prescription Opiates (Fentanyl, Oxycontin), Psilocybin / Magic Mushrooms, Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, Salvia Divinorum)YouthGrade School, Post-Secondary School, Raves, Secondary School