A bunch of Des Moines drug cases are now in doubt after a pair of cops are accused of planting drugs, a former New York cop gets sent away for selling "date rape" drugs, and more. Let's get to it:
In Des Moines, Iowa, two Des Moines police officers resigned Monday after officials accused them of planting evidence in a drug case last year. Senior Police Officers Joshua Judge, 30, and Tyson Teut, 30, left the force after superiors began investigating a complaint in a January 2015 case. But an internal investigation will review the hundreds of cases the pair worked since the both joined the department in August 2013. Stay tuned; criminal charges could be coming.
In St. Croix, the US Virgin Islands, an officer on the governor's security detail pleaded guilty last Thursday to using his law enforcement credentials to bypass TSA screening before he was later caught carrying about 40 pounds worth of cocaine onto a flight bound for Florida. Neal Chesterfield, 39, copped to possession with intent to distribute cocaine and faces an April sentencing date.
In New York City, a former Sleepy Hollow police officer was sentenced last Friday to eight years in prison for selling over a million dollars worth of an illegal analogue of GHB, widely described as a "date rape drug." Robert Smutek, 52, who had also served on a drug task force, also must forfeit $1.2 million in proceeds from the scheme.
An organic foods group says allowing kratom would be "dangerous," the Drug Policy Alliance comes out with a plan for heroin and prescription opioids, Iowa shuts down its asset forfeiture unit, and more.
The Natural Products Association says allowing kratom would be "dangerous." (Creative Commons/Wikimedia)
Virginia Marijuana Arrests Plummet. Marijuana arrests have dropped 14% in the state over the past two years, the largest decline this century, and they appear headed for further declines this year. Changes in prosecutorial priorities appear to be behind the fall, with some prosecutors saying they need to husband their resources for felony prosecutions.
Heroin and Prescription Opioids
Drug Policy Alliance Releases Public Health and Safety Plan to Address Problematic Opioid Use and Overdose. The Drug Policy Alliance, the nation's leading proponent of drug policy reform, is releasing a plan to address increasing rates of opioid use and overdose (now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States). The plan marks a radical departure from the punitive responses that characterize much of US drug policy and instead focuses on scientifically proven harm reduction and public health interventions that can improve treatment outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of opioid misuse, such as transmission of infectious diseases and overdose. The plan has 20 specific recommendations, including establishing safe injection sites, moving ahead with prescription heroin (heroin-assisted treatment), and embracing Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) to keep people out of the criminal justice system and bring them in contact with social services.
Natural Products Association Says Allowing Kratom Would Be "Dangerous." The largest trade group representing the organic and natural foods industry and dietary supplements makers has commented on the DEA's proposed ban on kratom, saying that "adding kratom to the US food supply could likely be dangerous and lead to serious unintended consequences." Kratom products have not met the strict standards for new items to be marketed to the public or undergone FDA approval, the group said. "Adding an untested and unregulated substance such as kratom to our food supply without the application of longstanding federal rules and guidelines would not only be illegal," said Daniel Fabricant, PhD, NPA's CEO and executive director. "It could likely be dangerous, leading to serious unintended consequences as our nation struggles with the crisis of opioid addiction."
Iowa Disbands State Asset Forfeiture Team, Returns $60,000 Taken From Travelers. Under increasing fire over asset forfeiture practices that saw a thousand seizures a year, the state Attorney General's Office announced Monday that the Department of Public Safety had disbanded its Interstate 80 drug interdiction and forfeiture team. The move came because of increased personnel demands and the need to focus on reducing traffic deaths, the office said, and had nothing to do with the recently announced settlement of a lawsuit brought by a pair of California gamblers who had $100,000 seized after they were stopped and a small amount of marijuana was found. That settlement resulted in the men getting most of their money back.
Justice Department Probing Possible Criminal Charges Over Atlanta DEA Informants. A DEA official told a congressional committee last week that the agency has referred "potential criminal charges" to the Justice Department over an Atlanta DEA supervisor who allegedly was in sexual relationships with two informants, one of whom was paid $212,000 for helping to bust four St. Louis drug traffickers. There are allegations of false documentation of payments to the snitch, who got $2,500 a month for two years, along with two "bonuses" of $55,000 and $80,750. The monthly payments apparently covered the rent for apartment near the DEA supervisor's home in the Atlanta metro area.
A Pennsylvania DARE officer didn't heed his own lessons, a Florida cop fell for a money-laundering come-on, and more. Let's get to it:
In Center Township, Pennsylvania, a Beaver County DARE officer was arrested November 10 for allegedly stealing drugs and cash from the evidence room for more than a year. Jeffrey Stone went down after he raised suspicions by appearing to be under the influence of drugs at work, and a state police investigation found that drugs and cash had been removed from evidence bags and replaced with filler. Drugs including heroin, fentanyl, and cocaine were missing, as well as cash. Stone had been the primary custodian of the evidence room for 16 years and had received an award as the department's DARE officer. He is charged with unlawful taking, receiving stolen property, tampering with or fabricating physical evidence and obstructing the administration of law.
In Plainfield, Indiana, a Plainfield Correctional Facility guard was arrested last Monday after he admitted smuggling drugs into the prison. Officer Joshua Kirk went down after investigators found a gram of meth on him as he arrived at work. They later found bags of tobacco and synthetic cannabinoids in his vehicle, as well as 79 more grams of fake weed and another pound of loose tobacco. Kirk is charged with trafficking with an offender, dealing in synthetic marijuana, and dealing in methamphetamine, all felonies.
In Jacksonville, Florida, a former Jacksonville Sheriff's officer was found guilty last Tuesday of participating in a money laundering scheme for an undercover officer posing as a drug dealer. Michael Rounsville, 48, accepted $42,000 in cash after he agreed to launder $200,000. Rounsville then ran the names of FBI agents through police databases for the man he thought was a drug dealer. He was convicted by a federal jury of accessing a law enforcement database without authorization for financial gain and in furtherance of a money laundering scheme. He's looking at up to five years in prison.
A Border Patrol agent goes down for dirty-dealing, an NYPD cop gets nailed for peddling cocaine and ecstasy, an Indiana narcotics supervisor gets caught with his hand in the cookie jar, and more. Let's get to it:
In McAllen, Texas, a US Border Patrol agent was arrested last Monday after he admitted working with drug dealers to stage a seizure of fake cocaine so that the real drugs could be distributed. Agent Eduardo Bazan Jr., 48, admitted taking $8,000 from a drug ring that ripped off cocaine from other suppliers, diluted the drugs, and then ensured that police seized them. It's not clear what the exact charges he faces are.
In Buckingham, Virginia, two state prison guards were arrested last Thursday after they were filmed buying drugs that federal agents said were intended to be smuggled into the Buckingham Correctional Center. The bust was part of a larger gang racketeering bust that netted 20 arrests in Virginia and New York. The two guards, Shonda Jones and Jaymese Jones, face as yet unspecified federal charges.
In New York City, a former NYPD officer was convicted last Thursday of helping to run drugs throughout the Bronx and providing protection to drug gangs. Merlin Alston, 33, was part of a long-running conspiracy to traffic large amounts of cocaine and ecstasy in the Bronx. He was convicted of one count of conspiracy to distribute narcotics and one count of possession of firearms in furtherance of the narcotics conspiracy. He's looking at a 15-year mandatory minimum sentence.
In Columbus, Indiana, a former Columbus police narcotics supervisor pleaded guilty last Thursday to stealing drugs from the department's evidence room under the guise of using them for training purposes. Jeremy Coomes, 39, checked out drug evidence from as many as 10 cases, and when it was returned, some of it was missing, some had been replaced with other substances, and evidence seals had been tampered with or altered. Coomes was originally hit with seven felonies, but copped to a single count of felony meth possession. He's looking at between three and 16 years in prison.
In Charleston, South Carolina, a former prison guard was sentenced last Wednesday to six months in prison for giving marijuana to a prisoner at the Estill Federal Correctional Institution. Anthony Jermaine Creech, 39, admitted delivering an ounce of pot to an inmate in exchange for money.
President Obama Says Federal Pot Prohibition in Question After Tuesday's Vote. Appearing on the Bill Maher Show Friday night, President Obama said federal marijuana prohibition will not "be tenable" if more states vote to legalize the weed on Tuesday. "The good news is is that after this referenda, to some degree it’s gonna call the question, because if in fact it passed in all these states, you now have about a fifth of the country that’s operating under one set of laws, and four-fifths in another," Obama said. "The Justice Department, DEA, FBI, for them to try to straddle and figure out how they’re supposed to enforce laws in some places and not in others — they’re gonna guard against transporting these drugs across state lines, but you’ve got the entire Pacific corridor where this is legal — that is not gonna be tenable," he said.
Maine Legalizers Have Huge Cash Advantage. Supporters of the Question 1 marijuana legalization initiative have raised more than $2.4 million dollars, according to campaign finance reports, while opponents have raised only $201,000. Most of the pro-legalization money has come from the New Approach PAC, the instrument of the heirs of late Progressive Insurance founder and drug reform philanthropist Peter Lewis, while 99% of the anti-legalization money has come courtesy of Project SAM's Kevin Sabet, who now heads the newly formed non-profit Alliance for Healthy Marijuana Policy.
Las Vegas Casino Magnate Sheldon Adelson Again Kicks in Against Nevada Pot Initiative. The Sands Corporation head honcho and prolific funder of anti-drug reform efforts has given more than $1.35 million to the campaign trying to defeat the Question 2 marijuana legalization initiative in recent weeks, according to campaign finance reports. That's on top of $2 million he gave opponents in September. In fact, Adelson is virtually a one-man opposition campaign, having provided 97.4% of all reported opposition campaign contributions. Proponents of Question 2 have raised only $1.2 million.
New Mexico Panel Votes to Allow Medical Marijuana for "Opiate Use Disorder." A state advisory board that makes recommendations to the Health Department on New Mexico’s Medical Cannabis Program voted 5-1 Friday in favor of adding "opiate use disorder" to the list of conditions that qualify. Now, it's up to incoming Health Secretary Lynn Gallagher to accept or deny the recommendation. Such a move could add thousands of new patients to the state's rapidly expanding medical marijuana program.
Montana Supreme Court Affirms Right to Jury Trial in Civil Forfeiture Cases. In a ruling last week, the state high court upheld and strengthened a 2015 law that reformed asset forfeiture procedures. The ruling came in the case of a man whose land was seized after police found 300 marijuana plants on it. The man was convicted of federal drug charges, but not prosecuted by the state. Even though he faced no state charges, the state seized his land. He requested a jury trial, but was denied in lower court, and a judge turned the property over to the state. But the Supreme Court said the 2015 law supplanted older law on which the trial judge based his decision.
Even As Arrests Drop, California Racial Disparities Persist. A new report from the office of Attorney General Kamala Harris finds that arrest rates for all racial groups have dropped in the past decade, but blacks were still much more likely than whites to be arrested on felony charges. When it comes to drugs, black men were six times as likely as whites to be arrested, and black women were nearly three times as likely to be arrested as whites. Latinos, on the other hand, were arrested for drugs at roughly the same rate as whites.
A former Texas DA partied a little to hearty, cops in New York and California get nailed for dirty dealing, and more. Let's get to it:
In Litchfield, Minnesota, a former Meeker County sheriff's deputy pleaded guilty October 14 to stealing drugs from a secured prescription drug drop-off box and toys that had been collected to give to children. Travis Hal Sebring, 34, entered guilty pleas to a felony charge of fifth-degree possession of drugs, a felony charge of theft, and a gross misdemeanor charge of theft. He had been arrested in January after he was caught pilfering the goodies on a surveillance camera. A search of his residence turned up more than a hundred prescription medications, toys, marijuana, and drug paraphernalia.
In New York City, a former NYPD officer was convicted Monday of delivering about 88 pounds of cocaine to drug dealers in the Bronx between 2010 and 2014. Merlin Alston, 33, was convicted of drug conspiracy and weapons charges and is looking at a mandatory minimum 15-year prison sentence. He will be sentenced February 2.
In Fresno, California, a former Bakersfield police detective was sentenced last Monday to five years in federal prison for conspiring with another cop to steal drugs and marijuana during "drug busts" and sell them to third parties for a profit. Patrick Mara, 36, admitted stealing at least 20 pound of methamphetamine that should have been booked into evidence. Mara's partner in crime, Damacio Diaz, got five years earlier last month.
In Longview, Texas, a former Gregg County DA was sentenced last Friday to 10 years' probation after pleading guilty to cocaine possession. Former DA Rob Foster, 71, was arrested in February 2015 when police found him spinning the wheels of his truck on an icy median and he exited the vehicle holding a glass of scotch. A search of the vehicle then came up with several grams of cocaine and a gun. He was granted deferred adjudication, meaning that if he successfully completes his probation, his record will be cleared. Foster said he was suffering from addiction issues.
This article was produced in collaboration with AlterNet and first appeared here.
Reeling from allegation after allegation of sexual misconduct, Republican presidential contender Donald Trump tried to go on the offensive on drug policy over the weekend, but in a manner typical of his campaign, he touched only briefly on the topic before flying off on new tangents, and he began his drug policy interlude with a bizarre attack on Hillary Clinton.
Donald Trump talks drugs. (Gage Skidmore/Wikimedia)
At a speech at a Toyota dealership in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Saturday, the GOP candidate claimed that Clinton was on performance-enhancing drugs before their last debate and suggested drug tests were in order.
"Why don't we do that?" he demanded, adding that Clinton was likely "getting pumped up" as the prepared for that debate.
"We should take a drug test prior cause I don't know what's going on with her. But at the beginning of last debate, she was all pumped up at the beginning and at the end it was like, oh take me down. She could barely reach her car," he claimed.
The claim didn't come out of nowhere. Trump was echoing an ad from two weeks ago from the pro-Trump super PAC Make America Number 1 that showed Clinton coughing and then stumbling to her van on the morning of September 11. The super PAC is bankrolled by Trump backer and big time conservative donor Robert Mercer, who dropped $2 million on the PAC in July.
The unfounded allegation of Clinton pre-debate drug use and the demand for a drug test grabbed media attention, but if Trump was attempting to turn a corner and shift the campaign's focus away from his peccadillos, his strange accusation against Clinton only served to raise more questions about his temperament and suitability for the nation's highest office.
Trump wanted Hillary Clinton to submit to a pre-debate drug test. (Wikimedia)
And it virtually smothered any discussion of actual drug policy proposals Trump made during the speech. While Trump has obliquely addressed the heroin and prescription opioid problem in the past, Saturday's speech was the first time he tried to put any flesh on his proposals for dealing with it.
If anyone were paying attention to the policy details amidst all the racket about the drug test challenge, they would have heard drug policy proposals rooted squarely in the failed drug war strategies of the last century.
Trump would, he said, block drugs from coming into the US by -- you guessed it -- building the wall on the Mexican border. He would also seek to tighten restrictions on the prescribing of opioids. And he would reinstitute mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenders.
"We have 5 percent of the world's population but use 80 percent of the prescription opioids," Trump said, eerily echoing former rival Jeb Bush, who used the same language while campaigning in the state earlier this year.
That statistic is aimed at showing that the US is over-prescribing narcotic pain killers, but according to the World Health Organization, the actuality is that in much of the rest of the world, they are underprescribing them. In fact, the WHO said that in more than 150 countries with 83 percent of the global population, there is virtually no access to prescription opioids for relief of pain.
And the under-treatment of chronic pain isn't just a problem in India or China or Africa. According to the National Institute of Health, more than 50 million Americans suffer significant chronic or severe pain. An opioid policy that focuses only on reducing prescriptions without addressing the need for access to pain killing opioids for actual pain is only half a policy.
When it comes to the border, Trump correctly asserts that Mexico is the source of most of the heroin in the US (it produces 45% itself and another 51% comes from Latin America, mostly Colombia and Guatemala, often through Mexico), but relies on a hyper-interdiction policy ("build the wall") to thwart it. Interdiction -- blocking the flow of drugs into the country -- has been a pillar of US drug policy for decades, but despite massive border build ups and the doubling of the number of Customs and Border Patrol agents in the past 15 years, the drugs still flow.
Long after their popularity wanes, Trump calls for new mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenders. (nadcp.org)
Interdiction hasn't done the trick so far, and there is no indication that even a Trumpian wall would make a difference. The creativity of drug smugglers is legendary, and the economic incentives under drug prohibition are great. As the saying goes, "Build a 50-foot wall, and they'll bring a 51-foot ladder" (or a tunnel).
The third component of his drug policy is a Reaganesque "lock 'em up." In his New Hampshire speech, he saluted running mate Mike Pence for increasing mandatory minimums for drug offenders as governor of Indiana.
"We must make similar efforts a priority for the nation," Trump said.
That position flies in the face of a growing bipartisan consensus that the use of mandatory minimums for drug offenses is draconian, ineffective, and harms mainly minority populations. During the Obama administration, mandatory minimum sentences have been reduced with congressional assent, and Obama himself has granted commutations to hundreds of drug war prisoners serving those draconian sentences, with little dissent.
Trump's drug policy is but a sketch, but even its vague outlines reflect outdated approaches to the issue and a quickness to resort to cheap demagoguery on the issue. Still, while there is plenty of room for discussion of his approach, Trump has apparently already left the issue behind, barely mentioning it since Saturday as he tilts at other windmills.
(This article was prepared by StoptheDrugWar.org's lobbying arm, the Drug Reform Coordination Network, which also pays the cost of maintaining this web site. DRCNet Foundation takes no positions on candidates for public office, in compliance with section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, and does not pay for reporting that could be interpreted or misinterpreted as doing so.)
Los Angeles attempts to prepare for a new era, HIDTA gets an expansion, Indiana voters signal they are ready for medical marijuana, and more.
Indiana Poll Has Overwhelming Support for Medical Marijuana. A new WTHR/HPI Indiana poll finds nearly three-quarters of likely Hoosier voters are ready for medical marijuana. The poll had 73% in support, with only 25% opposed. Even among Republicans, support was at 59%. Medical marijuana bills have been introduced, but have gone nowhere in the Republican-controlled state legislature.
Drug Czar Designates More Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas. Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP -- the drug czar's office) Michael Botticelli announced Thursday that an additional 18 counties have been granted the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) designation. That designation will allow them access to federal anti-drug resources granted to HIDTAs. Six counties were added to the Appalachian HIDTA, two to the New York/New Jersey HIDTA, four to the Ohio HIDTA, two to the Baltimore/Washington HIDTA, and six to the Wisconsin HIDTA. Created by Congress in 1988, there are now 28 HIDTAs located in 49 states, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia.
Turkey Okays Cannabis Production in 19 Provinces. The Turkish Food, Agriculture and Livestock Ministry announced late last month that it will allow marijuana production in 19 provinces across the country "in a bid to combat illegal production." News reports are unclear about whether this refers to recreational or medical marijuana or industrial hemp.
Prison guards go bad on a massive scale in Maryland, a Pennsylvania narc's police station overdose creates problems for his boss, an Iowa trooper cops to stealing pain pills, and more. Let's get to it:
In Johnstown, Pennsylvania, the police chief was suspended last Friday after one of his officers broke through a wall into the evidence room, stole drugs, consumed them, and was found suffering an overdose on the police station floor. Police Chief Craig Foust knew about security problems with the evidence room and failed to act on them, leading to his suspension, the county prosecutor said. The officer who overdosed, William Slisz, is a multi-year veteran and member of the Cambria County Drug Task Force.
In New Britain, Connecticut, two New Britain police officers were suspended last Friday for interfering in a federal drug investigation. Officer Brian Shea and Brian Solek were suspended for 25 days after they engaged a drug suspect in a high-speed pursuit just after he had been involved in an under-surveillance fentanyl deal. The pair were aware of the federal probe and "directly jeopardized the integrity of the investigation," Police Chief James Wardwell said.
In Baltimore, 18 state prison guards were arrested last Wednesday in a massive bust that led to 80 arrests, including guards, prisoners, and "outside facilitators. Most are charged with orchestrating a vast smuggling operation into the Eastern Correctional Institution, the state's largest prison. Guards smuggled heroin, cocaine, MDMA, and suboxone in exchange for cash, money orders, and in some instances, sexual favors from inmates.
In Mason City, Iowa, a former Iowa State Patrol trooper pleaded guilty last Wednesday to stealing drugs from the evidence room. Michael Haugen, 32, admitted taking over $500 in pain pills by removing them from evidence bags and then altering the labels to cover up the thefts. He has agreed to plead guilty to tampering with official records and 3rd degree theft. Prosecutors are recommending a suspended sentence.
This article was produced in collaboration with AlterNet and first appeared here.
Nearly a half century after Richard Nixon inaugurated the modern war on drugs, to criticize it as a failure as so common as to be banal. Yet even as marijuana prohibition falls in some states, the drug war rolls on, an assembly line of criminalization and incarceration, dealing devastating blows to the lives of its victims that linger far beyond the jail or prison cell.
More than 1.25 million arrests for simple drug possession last year. (Creative Commons)
And most of its victims are not capos or kingpins, but simple drug users. According to a new report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), drug possession is the single offense for which the largest number of arrests are made in the US, totaling more than 1.25 million last year, and accounting for more than three-fourths of all drug arrests.
Based on analysis of national and state-level data, as well as more than 360 interviews with drug offenders, family members, past and present government officials, and activists conducted mostly in Texas, Florida, Louisiana, and New York, the 196-page report, "Every 25 Seconds: The Human Toll of Criminalizing Drug Use in the United States," finds that enforcement of drug possession laws causes extensive and unjustifiable harm to individuals and communities across the country.
The long-term consequences can separate families; exclude people from job opportunities, welfare assistance, public housing, and voting; and expose them to discrimination and stigma for a lifetime. While more people are arrested for simple drug possession in the US than for any other crime, mainstream discussions of criminal justice reform rarely question whether drug use should be criminalized at all.
"Every 25 seconds someone is funneled into the criminal justice system, accused of nothing more than possessing drugs for personal use," said Tess Borden, AryehNeier Fellow at Human Rights Watch and the ACLU and the report's author. "These wide-scale arrests have destroyed countless lives while doing nothing to help people who struggle with dependence."
Among those interviewed was for the study was Corey, who is doing 17 years in Louisiana for possessing a half ounce of marijuana. His four-year-old daughter, who has never seen him outside prison, thinks she's visiting him at work.
The harmful consequences of a drug arrest extend far beyond prison walls (ussupremecourt.gov)
Another is "Neal," whose name was changed to protect his privacy. Also in Louisiana, he's doing five years for possessing 0.2 grams of crack cocaine. He has a rare autoimmune disorder and said he cried the day he pleaded guilty because he knew he might not survive his sentence.
Then there's Nicole, held for months in the Harris County Jail in Houston and separated from her three young children until she pleaded guilty to a felony -- her first. The conviction meant she would lose her student financial aid, the food stamps she relied on to feed her kids, and the job opportunities she would need to survive. All for an empty baggie containing a tiny bit of heroin residue.
"While families, friends, and neighbors understandably want government to take action to prevent the potential harm caused by drug use, criminalization is not the answer," Borden said. "Locking people up for using drugs causes tremendous harm, while doing nothing to help those who need and want treatment."
The report also emphasized the now all-too-familiar racial disparities in drug law enforcement, noting that while blacks use drugs at similar or lower rates than whites, they're more than two-and-a-half times more likely to arrested for drug possession and more than four time more likely to be arrested for pot possession. It's even worse in some localities, such as Manhattan, where blacks are 11 times as likely to be busted for drug possession as whites. That amounts to "racial discrimination under international human rights law," the two groups said.
Aside from the vicious cruelty of imprisoning people for years or decades merely for possessing a substance, that drug conviction -- and drug possession, even of tiny amounts, is a felony in 42 states -- also haunts their futures. Drug convicts face the loss of access to social welfare benefits, the stigma of criminality, the disruption of family life, the financial burden of paying fines and fees, and the burden of trying to find work with a felony record. And that harms society at large as well as the criminalized drug users.
And despite tens of millions of drug arrests over the past few decades, with all their collateral damage, the war on drugs doesn't achieve its avowed goal: reducing drug use. There has to be a better way, and Human Rights Watch and the ACLU have something to say about that.
report launch at National Press Club, Washington, DC, 10/12/16
"State legislatures and the US Congress should decriminalize personal use and possession of all drugs. Federal and state governments should invest resources in programs to decrease the risks associated with drug use and provide and support voluntary treatment options for people struggling with drug dependence, along with other approaches," the two groups recommended.
"Until full decriminalization is achieved, officials at all levels of government should minimize and mitigate the harmful consequences of current laws and practices," they added, providing detailed recommendations to state legislatures, police, prosecutors, and other state and local government entities, as well as the federal government.
"Criminalizing personal drug use is a colossal waste of lives and resources," Borden said. "If governments are serious about addressing problematic drug use, they need to end the current revolving door of drug possession arrests, and focus on effective health strategies instead."