Police Corruption

RSS Feed for this category

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Probation officers on drugs, perjuring narcs, and cops helping out drug dealers. Just another week of drug war-related police corruption. Let's get to it:

In Waynesville, North Carolina, a Buncombe County probation officer was arrested last Thursday on multiple charges for allegedly trying to buy 60 oxycodone tablets from an undercover officer posing as a drug seller. Jill Suddreth allegedly tried to flush the pills down the toilet when taken to the detention center. She is charged with solicitation to commit a felony, conspiracy, possession and more. She out on bond right now.

In San Luis Obispo, California, a former San Luis Obispo County DA's investigator was arrested Monday on charges he lied in a search warrant affidavit to a judge while a member of the Sheriff's Narcotics Task Force. AJ Santana filed an affidavit for a search warrant in August 2014 and successfully had it sealed "to protect an ongoing investigation," but officials discovered he had lied. Then they dropped the charges against the man Santana targeted. He's looking at up to 18 months in state prison.

In Houston, Texas, a former Houston Police officer was convicted Tuesday of helping her drug-dealing boyfriend transport cocaine between Huntsville and Houston. Jasmine Bonner, 27, went down after a confidential informant set up a sting in which Bonner and her boyfriend took possession of a kilo of cocaine. They were arrested as they drove away with the dope. She copped to one count of aiding and abetting possession with the intent to distribute cocaine, and is looking at up to 40 years in federal prison, with a mandatory minimum of five years.

In Miami, a Miami-Dade County police detective was sentenced last Wednesday to three years in prison for giving information and tips to a marijuana trafficking organization. Roderick Silva admitted tipping off the Santisteban family pot crew to a police list of suspected grow houses and accepted $1500 for his trouble. He copped to one count of conspiracy to distribute marijuana.

Chronicle AM: OR Gov Signs Marijuana Sales Bill, More British Cops Turning Blind Eye to Marijuana, More (7/28/15)

Any adult will be able to buy marijuana at Oregon dispensaries beginning October 1, some British police are moving toward de facto decriminalization, dirty Philly cops beat a corruption rap and are now suing city officials, and more.

Oregon Gov. Kate Brown (D) has signed a bill allowing recreational marijuana sales at dispensaries beginning October 1. (or.gov)
Marijuana Policy

Oregon Governor Signs Bill Allowing Recreational Marijuana Sales to Begin October 1. Gov. Kate Brown (D) has signed into law Senate Bill 460, which will allow medical marijuana dispensaries to begin selling marijuana to all adults on October 1. Pot shops other than existing dispensaries won't come on line until next year.

Medical Marijuana

Michigan Supreme Court Says Medical Marijuana Card Doesn't Grant Sweeping Immunity, But… In a pair of cases regarding medical marijuana caregivers, the state's high court has ruled that the medical marijuana law does not grant sweeping immunity to cardholders, but sent the cases back to lower courts to determine whether the defendants are entitled to immunity. The court seems to be getting tired of medical marijuana. It has addressed the issue nine times in the past seven years. "The many inconsistencies in the law have caused confusion for medical marijuana caregivers and patients, law enforcement, attorneys, and judges, and have consumed valuable public and private resources to interpret and apply it," wrote Justice Bryan Zahra.

Law Enforcement

Acquitted Philly Cops Sue City Officials for Defamation. Five members of a notorious Philadelphia Police dope squad who managed to avoid federal corruption convictions and who have won the right to return to work are now suing the district attorney, the mayor, and the police commissioner. They say they were unfairly maligned and fired. After numerous reports of corrupt activities, DA Seth Williams began refusing their cases in 2012 and that "started a gigantic, destructive avalanche of severe and permanent wrongs, damages and injustices" that continues to affect the officers today," their attorney wrote. They had been accused of routinely beating drug suspects, stealing money, and lying on police reports. One member of the squad pleaded guilty and testified against the others, but the jury did not convict.

International

Three More British Police Forces Will Basically Ignore Small Pot Grows. Police in Derbyshire, Dorset, and Surrey are joining police in Durham in quietly turning a blind eye to small-scale marijuana cultivation and use. While the Conservative government continues to have a hard-line stance on marijuana, the cops say they have better things to do. "On the list of priorities cannabis moves a long way down the chain," one police official explained.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Jail guards smuggling dope, cops helping drug dealers, cops ripping off drug dealers. Familiar stories, repeated over and over. Here's this week's bunch. Let's get to it:

In Hagerstown, Maryland, a Maryland state prison guard was arrested last Wednesday on charges he was smuggling drugs into the prison. Matthew Charles Scott, 28, went down after he obtained drugs and cash from a snitch working for a county drug task force. He is charged with attempting to possess controlled dangerous substances with the intent to distribute and conspiracy to distribute narcotics.

In Lafayette, Louisiana, a Lafayette Parish jail guard was arrested last Wednesday for bringing contraband, including unspecified "illegal substances," into the jail. Jayron Lenoir, 27, went down after authorities received a tip that he was smuggling in goodies. He is charged with introduction of contraband into a penal facility and malfeasance in office.

In Newark, New Jersey, an Essex County sheriff's deputy was arrested last Thursday in connection with a sprawling heroin distribution conspiracy. Officer Robert Andrews, 28, is charged with hindering the investigation into the drug ring and fourth degree obstructing administration of law. He allegedly provided information to one of the subjects of the investigation and assisted in identifying law enforcement officers. More than four dozen people have been arrested in the crackdown on the ring, dubbed Operation TIDE.

In McAllen, Texas, a former Mission police officer was arrested Monday for allegedly stealing several bundles of cocaine from a home and staging a fake drug seizure a few days later to try to conceal the theft. Hector "Jo Jo" Mendez, 45, is charged with possession with intent to distribute more than 5 kilograms of cocaine. The charge carries a maximum life prison sentence and $10 million fine. The 17-year veteran had been assigned to a DEA drug task force.

In Houston, Texas, a former Houston police officer was convicted Monday for her role in a cocaine trafficking operation. Jasmine Bonner, 27, had admitted aiding a major cocaine supplier after he had already been identified as a target of a federal drug investigation. He was her boyfriend. She had been arrested in possession of a pound of cocaine she had agreed to transport. She was convicted of aiding and abetting possession with the intent to distribute cocaine. She's looking at a mandatory minimum five years in federal prison, and up to 40 years.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

The beat goes on. Cops stealing weed in Texas, heroin in DC, and big sums of cash in Virginia, jail guards dealing smack, and more. Let's get to it:

In Sullivan City, Texas, a Sullivan City police officer was fired last Thursday amid accusations he stole marijuana from the evidence room. Angel de la Mora admitted having stolen the weed, and went down after a fellow officer noticed him "behaving oddly." He had mixed some of the marijuana with rubbing alcohol, a local folk remedy for aches and pains.

In New York City, a Rikers Island jail guard was arrested last Wednesday in a sweep that netted 12 alleged members of the Bloods on drug charges. Rikers guard Covel Duncan and the other 11 are all charged with intent to distribute over a kilogram of heroin between November 2014 and June 2015, authorities said. They're all looking at up to life in prison.

In Leesburg, Virginia, a former Loudon County sheriff's deputy was indicted by a federal grand jury last Thursday on charges that he embezzled $200,000 from a sheriff's office asset forfeiture fund. Frank Michael Parsons, 44, faces four counts of theft concerning programs receiving federal benefits. Parsons oversaw the asset forfeiture program, and is accused of stealing the money over a three-year period.

In Easton, Connecticut, four Connecticut law enforcement officers were arrested Tuesday on federal they were involving in a steroids and prescription opiates distribution ring. Easton Police Commissioner Raymond Martin, 48, went down after what the DEA and FBI called a long investigation into steroid shipments from China. He is charged with conspiracy to possess oxycodone with the intent to distribute. Also arrested in the case were a Newtown police sergeant and dispatcher and a state judicial marshal.

In West Palm Beach, Florida, a former Palm Beach County Sheriff's narcotics detective pleaded guilty last Friday to charges he trumped up a drug charge against a Riviera Beach man. Joaquin Fonseca-Ortiz, 49, pleaded guilty to four misdemeanor charges of official misconduct. In return, prosecutors dropped three other charges, including possession of cocaine, a felony. Under the agreement, he will serve six months house arrest and will have work release.

In Washington, DC, a former FBI agent was sentenced last Thursday to three years in federal prison for stealing heroin seized as evidence. Matthew Lowry's thefts, which he said were to feed his own habit, resulted in the dismissal of cases against 28 drug defendants, including 25 who had pleaded guilty and were freed from prison.

In St. Louis, a former St. Louis police officer was sentenced Tuesday to two years in federal prison for giving a gun to a drug dealer in order to help him stay in business. Don McGhee pleaded guilty in federal court to one count of conspiracy to possess a firearm in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime in April, about a week after being indicted. He went down after a pistol-grip shotgun he had given to the dealer was seized in a later drug raid and traced back to him.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

A New Mexico cop gets hoisted by his own petard, a DC cop won't get to keep her drug-money Maserati, a border guard gets popped stealing pain pills from drivers, and more. Let's get to it:

In Roswell, New Mexico, a Roswell police officer was arrested last Wednesday after his claim that a fast food worker spit in his drink went bad. When investigators watched video from the restaurant, they saw no evidence of the misdeed, and Officer Christopher Ray Moreno then admitted that he made it up because he didn't like the worker, whom he had arrested for petty crimes in the past. Knowing he faced firing over the incident, he resigned and turned in his equipment. When police searched the trunk of his police car, they found meth, drug pipes, a BB gun, and a suspect's driver license. He is now charged with a variety of offenses, including make false reports, drug possession, and theft.

In Allentown, Pennsylvania, a Northampton County jail guard was arrested last Friday on charges he smuggled drugs and a cell phone into the jail. Brian Keith Jenkins, 30, faces one count of providing a controlled substance to a confined person and one count of providing a telecommunications device to a confined person.

In Brownsville, Texas, a former Starr County narcotics investigator pleaded guilty last Tuesday to trafficking cocaine. Formed investigator Noel Pena, 29, who had been assigned to the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) task force, went down in a sting operation after he met an undercover agent and agreed to stage a fake bust where the trafficker could tell his employers the drugs had been seized, but he would really split them with Pena. Pena copped to conspiracy to possess with the intent to distribute more than five kilograms of cocaine. He's looking at a 10-year mandatory minimum federal prison sentence.

In Washington, DC, a former DC Metro Police detective was sentenced last Thursday to 15 months in prison after using money she got in a drug conspiracy to buy a motorcycle and several cars. Stephanie Ellison, 51, and her drug-dealing accomplice bought a Maserati, a BMW, and a Harley Davidson motorcycle in a bid to conceal their drug money. She pleaded guilty to a single count of money laundering in March.

In Burlington, Vermont, a former Customs and Border Patrol officer was sentenced Monday to two years' probation for stealing oxycodone pills while on the job at the Highgate border crossing with Canada. Christopher Van Zandt, 30, admitted stealing drugs while searching a vehicle entering the country.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

A lying narc goes to jail, a bribe-taking probation officer gets indicted, a deputy's pill habit gets the best of him, and a woman cop's heroin dealing gets her in trouble. Let's get to it:

In St. Louis, a St. Louis police officer was arrested last Wednesday after a police raid on a home where she was staying turned up heroin and guns. Officer Natalie Williams, 34, was the target of the raid, and police said they found two guns in her bedroom, heroin in her closet, more than $10,000 in cash and assorted drug-selling paraphernalia. She had been suspended without pay for "conduct unbecoming an officer" back in February, and that unspecified conduct apparently led to a closer investigation of her activities. She's in jail on a $30,000 cash bond.

In Elizabeth, New Jersey, a state probation officer was indicted last Thursday on charges she took bribes from a client to help him pass a drug test. Rhonda Battle, 46, had been assigned to work with defendants in the state drug court program. She is now charged with two counts of official misconduct and three counts of bribery. She allegedly was paid $200 for each drug test passed.

In West Palm Beach, Florida, a former undercover narcotics deputy pleaded guilty last Friday to four misdemeanor counts after he got caught making false reports that he bought crack cocaine at a Riviera Beach residence and using those reports to obtain a search warrant for the home and falsely arresting the resident. Joaquin Fonseca-Ortiz, 49, had faced five counts of official misconduct, along with with charges of possession of cocaine and giving false information to a law enforcement officer during an investigation. He was sentenced to a year in jail.

In Bennington, Vermont, a former Bennington County sheriff's deputy pleaded guilty last Friday to multiple drug-related counts. Gary Herrington, 42, went down after a woman he was sexually involved with accused him of asking her to sell prescription drugs and then, after an argument, he threatened on social media to have her arrested. When he was arrested, police found more than 600 opioid pain relievers at his home He copped to a felony count of distribution of narcotics, a felony count of forgery, a misdemeanor count of neglecting his duty and two misdemeanor counts of possession of narcotics. In a plea agreement, he received deferred adjudication—if he stays clean for three years, the charges go away. 

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Two southern sheriff's deputies and a New England jail guard make the dishonor roll this week.

In Tazewell, Tennessee, a former Claiborne County sheriff's deputy was arrested last Thursday on charges he solicited bribes to make drug and weapons charges go away. Robert Glenn Chadwell was caught red-handed taking $2,000 from a man and asking for more as part of an agreement to not charge him. He has been arrested on unspecified charges, and is now out of jail on a $500,000 bond.

In Mobile, Alabama, a former Mobile County sheriff's detective was arrested Monday for stealing drugs from investigations he was assigned to. Clifton Wayne Holifield went down after an internal investigation found he was pilfering "relatively small" amounts of pills for his own use. He had resigned last November, just after the investigation began. He faces 12 counts of second-degree theft of property.

In Central Falls, Rhode Island, a former Central Falls jail guard was sentenced last Friday to three years' probation and 300 hours of community service for delivering pills and pornography to an inmate at the Wyatt Detention Center. Scott Denton, 32, copped to one count of bribery.

Chronicle AM: Dalai Lama on MedMJ, OH Initiative Shenanigans, First MA Dispensary Will Open, More (6/22/05)

Ohio's political establishment gears up to block a controversial legalization initiative, the Dalai Lama supports medical marijuana, the Obama administration removes a barrier to marijuana research, Louisiana's governor rejects clemency for a man doing 13 years for two joints, and more.

The Dalai Lama is down with medical marijuana. (wikipedia.org)
Marijuana Policy

Ohio Official Says Proposed Amendment Could Block Marijuana Legalization Initiative. GOP Secretary of State Jon Husted said last Friday that an amendment to block private-interest monopolies would render the ResponsibleOhio legalization initiative invalid if the former passed. Husted and Republican lawmakers have vowed to adopt a resolution to place the monopoly amendment on the ballot. Husted said that if that amendment passes, the ResponsibleOhio initiative would be invalid, even if it also passed, and even if it passed with more votes than the monopoly amendment. The ResponsibleOhio initiative would limit commercial marijuana growing to ten specified locations, the owners of which are also the financiers of the initiative campaign.

Montana Anti-Marijuana Initiative Proposed. Billings anti-pot zealot Steve Zabawa is back at it. In 2014, he proposed an initiative saying that any federal Schedule I controlled substance (read: marijuana) "may not be legally possessed, received, transferred, manufactured, cultivated, trafficked, transported or used in Montana." It failed for lack of signatures. Now he has filed the same initiative again.

Medical Marijuana

Dalai Lama Endorses Medical Marijuana. Speaking at a an event in Guanajuato, Mexico, last week, the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism said he supported the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Speaking in response to a question about legalizing marijuana, the Dalai clarified that he opposed its recreational use, but using it medicinally would be "the exception."

White House Removes Crucial Barrier to Marijuana Research. The Obama administration announced today it is ending a major impediment to marijuana research, the Public Health Service review. That hurdle, created under the Clinton administration, required all applications for marijuana research to undergo an individual review, slowing down marijuana research and making it more difficult to study than heroin or cocaine.

First Massachusetts Dispensary Approved to Sell Medical Marijuana; One Inspection Left. The Alternative Therapies Group in Salem is ready to start selling to patients after winning a temporary waiver from state testing guidelines widely viewed as too strict. The Department of Public Health has said it will reconsider the standards. The dispensary is one of four in the state that have started growing their own supply, and is the furthest along. It must still pass a final inspection before it opens its doors. Much more at the link.

Drug Testing

California Appeals Court Upholds Making Employer Pay for Emotional Distress from Random Workplace Drug Testing. The court upheld an award for the intentional infliction of emotional distress on two law office workers pressured into taking a random drug test by their employer. The employee handbook called for random drug testing for certain safety-sensitive categories, or after an accident or for probable cause, but the company compelled all employees to undergo drug testing on one day in 2011. The two plaintiffs were awarded $15,000 each in damages by the trial court, which is what the appeals court just upheld.

Law Enforcement

Philly Court Throws Out 58 Convictions Tied to Dirty Narcs. A Common Pleas Court judge last Friday reversed 58 convictions in cases linked to six former Philadelphia narcotics officers. The six were cleared of criminal corruption charges in federal court in May, but their misdeeds have tainted hundreds of cases. The Public Defender's Office is seeking reversals of 1,370 cases, and the city is facing 135 civil rights lawsuits based on the unit's behavior. Since 2013, prosecutors have refused to prosecute cases tied to the squad after numerous allegations they planted evidence, beat and robbed suspects, and falsified paperwork. Much more at the link.

Sentencing

Louisiana Governor Rejects Clemency for Black Man Doing 13 Years for Two Joints. Gov. Bobby Jindal (R) last week denied a clemency petition for Bernard Noble, sentenced to 13 years in prison for two joints under the state's draconian marijuana laws. Jindal said he rejected clemency because Noble had not yet served 10 years in prison.

International

China's Wide Open Illegal Drug Chemical Factories. It's pretty darned easy to get new synthetic drugs by the pound or more from Chinese manufacturers, according to this New York Times report. Need spice or flakka or bath salts? It's just a few clicks away.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Four Chicago-land cops get popped for testilying, a New York cop tried to impress a woman and ends up on probation, another jail guard goes down, and more. Let's get to it:

In Chicago, four Chicago area police officers were arrested last Monday on perjury charges for allegedly lying under oath at a drug hearing last year. Three of the four are narcotics officers with the Chicago Police, while the fourth is an officer in suburban Glenview. They are accused of "testilying" about a traffic stop in which they claimed to smell marijuana. But their own dash-cams did them in, showing that they immediately opened the vehicle door at the traffic stop. The officers are Chicago narcs William Pruente, Sgt. James Padar, and Vince Morgan and Glenview Officer James Horn. All are charged with felony counts of perjury, obstructing justice and official misconduct. If convicted, they face probation up to 5 years in prison.

In State College, Pennsylvania, a former State College police officer was arrested last Friday on charges he stole drugs from the department. Thomas Dann, 56, is accused of stealing cocaine and opiate pain relievers from the evidence room, where he was one of two evidence custodians. He faces multiple felony drug charges, as well a misdemeanor charges of theft and tampering with evidence.

In Doylestown, Pennsylvania, a Bucks County jail guard was arrested last Friday for allegedly smuggling suboxone into the jail. John Dingle, 34, is charged with possession of a controlled substance with intent to deliver and delivery of a controlled substance.

In Albany, New York, a Troy police officer was sentenced last Friday to three years' probation and a $5,000 fine after admitting that he tipped off a drug dealer about a pending raid last year. Officer Brian Gross confessed that he told a woman friend he hoped to impress that the narc squad was investigating her brother and planned to raid his home. Gross went down after a drug sweep of multiple residences came up with no drugs, and his superiors grew suspicious. He pleaded guilty to two misdemeanors, divulging evidence secured by eavesdropping to its intended target and official misconduct.

In Las Cruces, New Mexico, a former Dona Ana County jail guard was sentenced Tuesday to a year and a day in federal prison for trying to smuggle drugs into the jail. Francisco Balderrama, 27, had copped to conspiracy to distribute heroin, meth, and cocaine. Four others were arrested in the scheme as well.

This Week's Corrupt Cops Stories

Cops hauling pot, cops protecting loads of cocaine, cops selling ecstasy, and a whole bunch of cops with apparent prescription pill problems, Let's get to it:

In Pennsauken, New Jersey, a Camden County police officer was arrested in late April on drug charges, but his arrest wasn't made public until now. Officer Matthew Van Houten, 28, was one of 32 people arrested in the mass bust of two independent drug trafficking groups on the Jersey Shore. He is charged with possession of cocaine while employed as a police officer. He went down in Operation Tidal Wave, which netted 10 pounds of cocaine, three ounces of heroin, 16 pounds of marijuana, a thousand pills, seven vehicles, and $125,000 in cash.

In Sulphur, Louisiana, a Cameron County sheriff's deputy was arrested last Tuesday with 18 pounds of marijuana in his car. Deputy Derek Nothnagel had been pulled over on I-10 by state troopers. He is charged with possession of marijuana with intent to distribute, use and sale of drug paraphernalia, improper lane usage, following too closely and expired inspection decal. He was booked into the Calcasieu Parish Correctional Center. His bond was set at more than $27,000.

In Virginia Beach, Virginia, a Virginia Beach police officer was arrested last Wednesday for allegedly fraudulently obtaining prescription drugs. Officer Harry Kephart Jr. is accused of misrepresenting facts when he went to a medical facility after being denied drugs by an emergency room doctor the same day. He's out on bond now.

In Conway, Arkansas, a former assistant county jail administrator was arrested Monday for taking prescription drugs prescribed to an inmate. Capt. Lloyd Vincent, 40, resigned last year after an investigation into missing prescription drugs began and is now charged with fraud or deceit to obtain narcotic drugs. He has admitted taking the drugs and leading a nurse to believe that he was disposing of them. He was, but not in the way intended.

In Yulee, Florida, a Nassau County sheriff's deputy was arrested Tuesday for allegedly selling his prescription pain medications. Deputy Stuart James Raulerson went down after authorities received a tip he was selling hydrocodone that had been prescribed to him. He is charged with sale of a controlled substance and conspiracy to engage in trafficking hydrocodone, both felonies. He's also been fired.

In Savannah, Georgia, a former Savannah-Chatham police officer was sentenced last Wednesday to serve six months in jail for selling Ecstasy. Derrick Andre Fullmer had copped to one count each of possession and distribution of the drug. He also must pay a fine and do three years of supervised release.

In Miami, a former NYPD officer was sentenced last Friday to 10 years in federal prison after he provided armed security for a $200,000 cocaine deal that turned out to be a sting. Phillip Leroy, 28, had earlier pleaded guilty to federal drug trafficking conspiracy charges. He went down in Sunrise, a Florida town notorious for its drug stings and asset forfeitures. He agreed to provide security for a load of 22 pounds of cocaine, but was busted when he went to a warehouse to get it.

In Pacific, Missouri, a former Pacific police officer was sentenced Monday to five years in prison for stealing drug evidence from the department. Arthur Tullock, 56, had pleaded guilty to two counts of stealing controlled substances. Local prosecutors said they had to throw out about a dozen drug cases because he consumed the evidence.

Drug War Issues

Criminal JusticeAsset Forfeiture, Collateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Court Rulings, Drug Courts, Due Process, Felony Disenfranchisement, Incarceration, Policing (2011 Drug War Killings, 2012 Drug War Killings, 2013 Drug War Killings, 2014 Drug War Killings, 2015 Drug War Killings, Arrests, Eradication, Informants, Interdiction, Lowest Priority Policies, Police Corruption, Police Raids, Profiling, Search and Seizure, SWAT/Paramilitarization, Task Forces, Undercover Work), Probation or Parole, Prosecution, Reentry/Rehabilitation, Sentencing (Alternatives to Incarceration, Clemency and Pardon, Crack/Powder Cocaine Disparity, Death Penalty, Decriminalization, Defelonization, Drug Free Zones, Mandatory Minimums, Rockefeller Drug Laws, Sentencing Guidelines)CultureArt, Celebrities, Counter-Culture, Music, Poetry/Literature, Television, TheaterDrug UseParaphernalia, ViolenceIntersecting IssuesCollateral Sanctions (College Aid, Drug Taxes, Housing, Welfare), Violence, Border, Budgets/Taxes/Economics, Business, Civil Rights, Driving, Economics, Education (College Aid), Employment, Environment, Families, Free Speech, Gun Policy, Human Rights, Immigration, Militarization, Money Laundering, Pregnancy, Privacy (Search and Seizure, Drug Testing), Race, Religion, Science, Sports, Women's IssuesMarijuana PolicyGateway Theory, Hemp, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Marijuana Industry, Medical MarijuanaMedicineMedical Marijuana, Science of Drugs, Under-treatment of PainPublic HealthAddiction, Addiction Treatment (Science of Drugs), Drug Education, Drug Prevention, Drug-Related AIDS/HIV or Hepatitis C, Harm Reduction (Methadone & Other Opiate Maintenance, Needle Exchange, Overdose Prevention, Safe Injection Sites)Source and Transit CountriesAndean Drug War, Coca, Hashish, Mexican Drug War, Opium ProductionSpecific DrugsAlcohol, Ayahuasca, Cocaine (Crack Cocaine), Ecstasy, Heroin, Ibogaine, ketamine, Khat, Marijuana (Gateway Theory, Marijuana -- Personal Use, Medical Marijuana, Hashish), Methamphetamine, New Synthetic Drugs (Synthetic Cannabinoids, Synthetic Stimulants), Nicotine, Prescription Opiates (Fentanyl, Oxycontin), Psychedelics (LSD, Mescaline, Peyote, Salvia Divinorum)YouthGrade School, Post-Secondary School, Raves, Secondary School